Ruzivo rwedzidziso. Iyo prehistory yeUnix chikamu chechinomwe

Ruzivo rwedzidziso
Tiri mugumisiro wezvisarudzo zvatinoita tichizvisarudzira here kana kuti pane simba guru rinotungamirira nhanho dzedu? Bhaibheri raClaude Shannon rakabvunza dzino zvezvinyorwa zvingaite sekupa nharo kune vatsigiri veDestiny. Shannon aive munhu aifarira zvinhu zvakawanda; juggling, jazz, aviation, crossword puzzles kana kuvaka mitambo yemitambo. Chikamu chehupenyu hwake hwehunyanzvi chakatsaurirwa kutsvagisa masvomhu akashandiswa kutsvagiridzo yemajini kana indasitiri yezvombo. Zvisinei, nguva nenguva mamiriro ezvinhu akamutungamirira kuvaka hwaro hwebasa rake repamusoro: The Theory of Information

Chiziviso chiduku pamadziro paYunivhesiti yeMinnesota chakamutungamirira kushanda neMIT's differential analyzer. Ikoko akarondedzera Boolean Algebra nezvokuvakwa kwematunhu. Paaiita internship kuBell Laboratories, akawana chinyorwa chakamupa pfungwa yekuti dzidziso imwe chete inogona kutsanangura kufambiswa kweruzivo kwakazvimiririra kwepakati. Akabatanidzwa zvachose muBell, kwaakapinda kuti adzivise kudanwa, akatanga kufarira cryptography uye akawana kudzokororwa kwemutauro uye chikonzero chekusaendesa mitsara yakazara kuti meseji iite zvine musoro.

Ruzivo rwedzidziso

Shannon aive chikamu chechikwata chaishanda pakuchinja kweparadigm mukufambiswa kwemashoko, inonzi PCM tekinoroji kana Pulse Code Modulation. Panzvimbo pokufambisa inzwi kupfurikidza namasaisai emagetsi, sezvakanga zvaitwa kubvira apo Alexander Graham Bell akagadzira runhare, chinangwa chakanga chiri chokufambisa mashoko pamusoro pemafambiro amasaisai emagetsi. kuitira kuti mugamuchiri anokwanisa kuzvivaka patsva. Pano tinofanira kufunga zvinhu zviviri zvinokosha.

  • Ruzivo rwemafambiro emasaisai harufambiswe panguva yese yehurukuro, asi sampuli inogadzirwa imwe neimwe nguva, uye mugamuchiri anozadza munzvimbo. Rangarira zvakataurwa naShannon nezve redundancy uye kusafanirwa kutumira iyo meseji izere.
  • Ruzivo rwemasaisai runogona kufambiswa nekuisa encoding nemazero uye mamwe. Pano vanoshandisa pfungwa dzaShannon pamusoro pekushandiswa kweBoolean algebra pakufambiswa kweruzivo kuburikidza nedunhu.

Zvisinei, nzira iyi haishandi kune inzwi chete. Iyo tekinoroji imwechete inogona kushandiswa kune kure kure kuendesa kune chero zvinyorwa zvinogona kushandurwa kuita zero uye izvo; achiri uye anofamba mifananidzo, zvinyorwa, mifananidzo, mimhanzi, nezvimwe.

Kuve nechokwadi chekuvimbika kweshoko

Pamwe munyika dzese mune musiyano wemutambo uyo muhuduku hwangu takadana "foni yakaputsika." Mumwe anozevezera meseji kune mumwe wake wepadhuze iyewo anoita zvimwe chete kune anotevera mumutsetse. Saka, kusvika kune yekupedzisira iwe unofanirwa kudzokorora meseji zvinonzwika. Zvinenge zvisingaenderani nezvakataurwa nekutanga.

Dambudziko reBell Labs nderekudzivirira izvi kuti zvisaitike mukutaurirana. Uye, apa ndipo panopinda Ruzivo Theory.

Shannon akakurudzira modhi yezvekutaurirana umo mutumwa anoburitsa kuburikidza neanotumira chiratidzo chekuti, ichifamba nemuchiteshi, inosvika kune anogamuchira. Iri ndiro basa rekunyora meseji yakambovharwa neanotumira uye kuendesa kune anogamuchira. Muchannel imwe neimwe mune inonzi "noise" izvo zvinova zvinokanganisa zvinokanganisa kugamuchirwa kweshoko.

Chikumbiro chake chinosanganisira zvirevo zvinotevera:

  • Nhaurirano dzese, zvisinei nefomati, dzinogona kufungwa nezvadzo maererano neruzivo.
  • Ruzivo rwese runogona kuyerwa mumabhiti. Imwe bhiti (Ipfupi yebhinari digit) inoratidza sarudzo pakati pedzimwe nzira mbiri dzinogoneka, doti kana dashi reteregirafu, misoro kana miswe paunenge uchipenengura mari, kana kupuruzira kana kudzima muPCM tekinoroji.
  • Ruzivo rwakanyanya kuomarara runogona kufambiswa nenzira yetambo yebhiti mune yakafanotsanangurwa fomati. Semuenzaniso, iyo base 2 inomiririra yenhamba kodhi inopihwa kune tsamba.

Mubasa rake re cryptography, Shannon akange aratidza kuti saizi yemeseji inogona kudzikiswa nekubvisa redundancy. Apa akafunga kuenda neimwe nzira; kurwisa ruzha nekuwedzera mamwe mabhiti kuitira kuti anogamuchira akwanise kugadzirisa zvikanganiso zvakaitika panguva yekufambisa.

Kunyangwe kazhinji kuumbwa kwedzidziso kwaizotora makumi emakore kuti kuve mashandisirwo anoshanda, mainjiniya aitove nenzira yekuyera kugona kwenzira dzakasiyana kufambisa ruzivo. Zvese zvaive zvakagadzirira kuti zvinhu zvitsva zvitsive tambo yemhangura yechinyakare, zvichiwedzera huwandu hwemameseji aitenderera. Uye hongu iwe waizoda nzira yekubata iyo yese huwandu hweruzivo. Tichazviona munyaya dzinotevera.

Iyo yekutanga yeUnix
Nyaya inoenderana:
Iyo yekutanga yeUnix uye basa reBell Labs
Kuunza masayendisiti uye mainjiniya pamwechete
Nyaya inoenderana:
Kuunza masayendisiti uye mainjiniya pamwechete. Iyo yekutanga yeUnix. Chikamu 2
Vacuum sepombi
Nyaya inoenderana:
Vacuum sepombi. Iyo yekutanga nhoroondo yeUnix chikamu 3
Kuuya kwetransistor
Nyaya inoenderana:
Kuuya kwetransistor. Iyo yekutanga yeUnix Chikamu Chechina
Nyaya inoenderana:
VaClaude Shannon. Iyo Prehistory yeUnix Chikamu Cheshanu
Basa raShannon
Nyaya inoenderana:
Basa raShannon. Iyo prehistory yeUnix chikamu 6

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira data: AB Internet Networks 2008 SL
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   simby akadaro

    Please masosi! chikamu chechitanhatu chaiva nechidimbu chakaita kuti ndifunge kuti yaiva shanduro, kunyange zvazvo ndisina chokwadi. Zvose izvi zvinobva kupi?

    1.    Diego ChiGerman Gonzalez akadaro

      Ini ndinovimbisa neChishanu kuti rondedzero yakadzama yemabviro uye zvandakawana kubva kune yega yega inouya. Izvo zvingangoita senge plagiarism kwauri ndiwo mutsara wekutanga. Ndakaiba kuna Isaac Asimov kubva mubhuku rinounganidza mhinduro dzake pamibvunzo yesainzi.