Basa raShannon. Iyo prehistory yeUnix chikamu 6

Basa raShannon

Dai waizobvunza boka revanyori vezvakaitika kare vetekinoroji yaive yechipiri yakakosha sainzi muBell Laboratories, zvaizonetsa kuwana mhinduro mbiri dzakaenzana. Iri sangano rakagara munzvimbo dzayo dzakasiyana vamwe veakanyanya tarenda mafizikisi, mainjiniya, masvomhu, nyanzvi dzesimbi uye kunyangwe nyanzvi dzepfungwa. izvo zvaive zvakakosha pavavariro yekambani yekuwedzera basa renhare muUnited States mose.

Asi kana zvasvika pakupindura kunonyanya kukosha, mhinduro yacho zvimwe inobvumirana; Claude shannon. Munhevedzano yezvinyorwa izvi Ini ndinoedza nepandinogona napo kuti ndisape akawanda akakodzera mazita kana misi yekuisa pfungwa pazviitiko. Nekudaro, hazvidzivisike kumira paShannon nekuti, saNewton kana Einstein, akazvigadzira ega chikamu chitsva chekudzidza.

Basa raShannon raisanganisira chii?

Isu takanga tasiya Claude Shannon, mudzidzi akapedza kudzidza weEngineering neMathematics, achifadzwa nezvinobvira zveanoongorora anosiyanisa. Waive muchina wekuti nekubatanidza nzvimbo dzakasiyana dzemarelay aive nekugona kugadzirisa equations. Shannon akakurudzira mukana wekushandisa Boolean algebra, bazi idzva remasvomhu, kugadzira michina yakadai.

Boolean algebra inongotsigira maviri akasiyana; 0 uye 1 uye 3 zvakakosha mashandiro:

  • Kurambwa (HAZVI)
  • Mari (OR)
  • Chigadzirwa (AND)

Shannon akabatanidza zvinzvimbo zviviri zvinogoneka zverelay yega yega (kudzima nekuenderera) neaya maviri akasiyana (0 uye 1). Pepa raakanyora nezvenyaya iyi rinoonekwa serinopesvedzera thesis yatenzi munhoroondo.

Pasina kujeka pamusoro pezvekuita, akashanda kwenguva yakati mukutsvakurudza kwemajini, asi pasina kurasikirwa nechido chake munyaya yekufambisa mashoko. Kutevera chinyorwa chekuyera uye kufunga nezve kuyerera kwe data kweanotumira uye anogamuchira, akatanga kufungidzira pamusoro pedzidziso yakajairika inobatanidza nhepfenyuro dzakasiyana.

Atarisana nekupinda kweUnited States muGerra Yechipiri, akafunga kupinda mumarabhoritari eBell, sezvo vakabatana zvakanyanya mukuedza kwehondo, yaive nzira yechokwadi yekudzivisa kudanwa.

Hondo mitambo

Basa rekutanga raShannon reBell Labs raive rekushandira pamwe pakugadzira masisitimu ekudzora moto. Basa rake raive rekugadzira mafomula emasvomhu aizobvumira kuverenga nzvimbo yeramangwana yepurojekiti yemuvengi kana ndege kubva kuruzivo rwakaunganidzwa neradar.r kubva pachinzvimbo chazvino. Aya mafomula aibva arongwa kuita makomputa echinyakare anobhadhariswa kupfura otomatiki pazvinangwa.

Iyo system payakaiswa muna 1944, yakakwanisa kumisa 70% yemabhomba eGerman akadonhedza Great Britain.

Nekudaro, chainyanya kufarira Shannon yaive cryptography, saka akabatana nezvikwata zveBell Labs zvaibata nenzira dzekuchengeta kutaurirana kwakachengeteka.
. Basa rake panhau yacho rakapfupikiswa mugwaro rine mapeji 114 iro rakakurumidza kurangarirwa sechakavanzika nezviremera zvehurumende.

Imwe yeanonyanya kukosha mapoinzi ebasa iri kuwanikwa kwaro kuti mutauro wechiRungu uzere nedundancy uye kufungidzira. Mune cryptography, iyo kushomeka kwemeseji ine, ndiko kunyanya kuoma kutsanangura. Shannon airatidza kuti zvaigoneka kudzikisira kudzokororwa uye kufanotaura nekubvisa mavara kana mazwi pasina kuita kuti meseji ive isina zvazvinoreva. Pane zvakati wandei zviedzo zvepfungwa zvinoratidza kuti uropi hunozvipedza sei mitsara nekuita kuti tione mazwi asina kunyorwa.

Mazwi matatu anoumba nhaka yaClaude Shannon anoonekwa kekutanga mugwaro iri: Ruzivo rwedzidziso.

Kuti Shannon atore danho rinotevera mukugadzira kwake dzidziso, zvaive zvakafanira kumirira marabhoritari eBell kuti agadzire tekinoroji yakavakirwa padzidziso yakaumbwa kumwe kunhu: iyo inonzi pulse code modulation (PCM).

Masaini erunhare aifamba kubva pamasaisai emagetsi. Mainjiniya eBell vakatora 8000 samples pasekondi imwe yekusimuka nekudonha kwemasaisai aya uye vakawana nzira yekuashandura kuita mazero neayo kana kuti on and off states.
(Unorangarira mabhii maviri ari muBoolean algebra?) Zvino, panzvimbo pokutumira masaisai achitevedza nharembozha, unogona kutumira mashoko anotsanangura nhamba dzemasaisai.

Muchinyorwa chinotevera ndinotaura nezvekuti izvi zvakakanganisa sei basa raShannon

Iyo yekutanga yeUnix
Nyaya inoenderana:
Iyo yekutanga yeUnix uye basa reBell Labs
Kuunza masayendisiti uye mainjiniya pamwechete
Nyaya inoenderana:
Kuunza masayendisiti uye mainjiniya pamwechete. Iyo yekutanga yeUnix. Chikamu 2
Vacuum sepombi
Nyaya inoenderana:
Vacuum sepombi. Iyo yekutanga nhoroondo yeUnix chikamu 3
Kuuya kwetransistor
Nyaya inoenderana:
Kuuya kwetransistor. Iyo yekutanga yeUnix Chikamu Chechina
Nyaya inoenderana:
VaClaude Shannon. Iyo Prehistory yeUnix Chikamu Cheshanu

Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Mhinduro, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira data: AB Internet Networks 2008 SL
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Mr milindri akadaro

    Ndinoda kuverenga chikamu chechipiri ikozvino.