Kuuya kwetransistor. Iyo yekutanga yeUnix Chikamu Chechina

Kuuya kwetransistor

Iri boka rezvinyorwa rinotarisira ku taura nyaya yeUnix, iyo inoshanda sisitimu yakagadzira nzira yeLinux, iyo yakavhurwa sosi zvigadzirwa zveBSD, uye zvisina kunangana macOS uye Android. Asi kuti unzwisise Unix unofanirwa kuziva nhoroondo yeBell Labs, AT & T yekutsvagisa chikamu.

Panofanira kuve nezviitiko zvishoma kwazvo mairi kambani inogadzira indasitiri inoshanda pachayo. Motokari, indasitiri yemakomputa, kana kugadzira ndege kwaive kukonzeresa kuferefetwa kwevanhu munzvimbo dzakasiyana. Pane kudaro Bell Labs nevakafanotungamira, iwo ekutsvagisa matavi eWestern Electric neAT&T, vakagadzira zvese zvinenge zvichidiwa kugadzira nharembozha yemazuva ano.

AT & T ine midzi yayo mugadziri werunhare iye, Alexander Graham Bell. Mumazuva ekutanga, zvinhu izvo isu zvatave kutora seyakareruka senge kurira kwetoni, iro rakabatikana toni, hoko yekurembedza ruoko kana dial dial yakanga isipo. Zvinonzi kana waida kufona waifanira kushevedzera nekumirira munhu anodarika padyo nechigadzirwa kuti akupindure.

The company Ini ndaifanirwa kugadzirisa zviuru zvematambudziko zuva rega rega izvo pasina munhu anga asangana nazvo kusvika panguva iyoyo. Kune izvi, akagadzira boka revanyanzvi vezviitiko zvakasiyana-siyana zvaisanganisira mainjiniya, vemakemikari, vefizikiki, vemasvomhu uye nyanzvi mune zvemidziyo, pakati pevamwe.. Ivo vaisango fanirwa chete kuchengetedza iyo yazvino system mukushanda asi kuti vagadzirire iyo yekuwedzera kwekudiwa. Uyezve, kuti igare iri yega, yaifanira kudzikisa mutengo.

Paive nezvipingamupinyi zviviri zvikuru pakuzadzisa zvinangwa izvi. Vacuum sepombi (yazvo tinotaura muchinyorwa chakapfuurar uye reles.

Relay ndiko switch yemagetsi inobvumidza iyo magetsi kuti ipfuure kana yakavharwa uye inodzivirira iyo kana yakavhurika. Kuvhura nekuvhara kweswichi kunoitwa zvakare zvemagetsi.

Kugadzirwa kwemavhu machubhu yaive yequasi-artisanal chiitiko chaida nhanho dzakawanda uye nekushomeka kushoma kwekutadza.. Yakambovakwa vaive nemagetsi ekushandisa zvakanyanya uye vaigadzira kupisa kwakawanda. Iwo anodzoreredza, ane basa raive rekuona kuti mafoni anosvika kwavanosvika mukati merunhare, tVaive nematare esimbi akawanda akasakara. Zvakare, nguva yayo yekupindura yainonoka.

Solid-state fizikiki uye kuuya kweiyo transistor

Solid state fizikiki yakatsaurirwa kufunda yeiyo masisitimu ezvekushandisa uye nemabatiro azvinoita nezviwanikwa zvavo paatomiyikisi.

Zvinhu zvakasimba zvinoumbwa kubva kune yakazara maatomu, ayo anopindirana zvakanyanya. Uku kudyidzana kunogadzira iyo mechiniki (semuenzaniso, kuomarara uye kusimba), kupisa, magetsi, magineti, uye oparesheni zvinhu.

Mune solid solid zvigadzirwa magetsi anoyerera kuburikidza neakasimba semiconductor makristasi (silicon, gallium arsenide, germanium) pachinzvimbo kuburikidza nemavhuvhu machubhu.

Kana ivo vakagona kuwana izvo zvakanaka zvinhu, Bell Labs kudzikisa mutengo, nguva yekugadzira, uye hupenyu hwemaitiro anoshandiswa kufambisa mafoni uye chengetedza mhando yemasaini.

Muna 1939 vakatanga kudzidza semiconductor zvinhu. Zvinhu izvi zvinodaidzwa nemazita nekuti hazvisi akanaka makondakita emagetsi sezvazviri nemhangura) kana ma insulators akanaka emagetsi segirazi. Chimwe chinonakidza chivakwa ndechekuti ivo vanongobvumidza yazvino kupfuura nenzira imwechete. Izvo zvaingove zvakakosha kuti uwane chinhu chakawedzerawo izwi.

Basa rakakanganiswa nePiri Hondo Yenyika apo zviwanikwa zveBell Laboratories zvakatsaurirwa kutaurirana kwemauto nekuvandudzwa kwetekinoroji yekuona radar.

Vachitangazve basa ravo, masayendisiti akamhanya kupinda muchinetso, semiconductor zvishandiso zvaive zvisina kuwedzera zvinhu. Izvi zvakaitika nekuti chikamu chepamusoro chemu semiconductor zvinhu (ivo vaishandisa Germanium kana Silicon) chaitadzisa kufamba kwazvino. Ivo pakupedzisira vakagadzirisa dambudziko nekushandisa ine conductive mhinduro.

Ivo vakabva vagadzira chishandiso chakagadzirwa nekamucheka kadiki kemesemiconductor zvinhu zvingangoita kota saizi yepeni padare resimbi. Tambo yainge yakasungirirwa pachigadziko nepo chidimbu chidimbu chetatu chegoridhe-rakamonerwa mupurasitiki chakanongedzera kumeso kwepamusoro kwechidimbu. Pamuromo pakanga paine diki, ingangoita isinganzwisisike kugadzira waya mbiri nekaviri kupatsanurwa.

Chigadzirwa ichocho chaizove hwaro hwechimwe chinhu chinozivikanwa se transistor uye ichave hwaro hweindasitiri yemagetsi mumaXNUMX nemaXNUMX. Ivo zvakare vaizobvumidza kuoneka kwechizvarwa chechipiri chemakomputa emagetsi.


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  1. Inotarisira data: AB Internet Networks 2008 SL
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako