Kuunza masayendisiti uye mainjiniya pamwechete. Iyo yekutanga yeUnix. Chikamu 2

Kuunza masayendisiti uye mainjiniya pamwechete

Mauri chinyorwa chapfuurar isu tanga tatanga kuverenga nhoroondo yeBell Laboratories, iro sangano rakabva kwakawanda kwounyanzvi hwetekinoroji yezana ramakore rechiXNUMX rakabuda. Pakati pavo Unix, iyo inoshanda system iyo yaizokurudzira Richard Stallman naLinus Torvalds.

Isu tinosiya iyi nyaya naTheodore Vail, purezidhendi weAT&T uye yako projekiti yekugadzira yakasarudzika nhare sevhisi. (Kunzwisisa saizvozvo zvisikwa zvevashandisi vefoni muUnited States)

Chipingamupinyi chikuru chinofanira kukurirwa mukuzadziswa kwebasa repasi rose kwaive kure. Iyo tekinoroji panguva iyoyo yaingobvumidza izwi revanhu kuti ripfuurirwe rwendo rwemamaira mazana manomwe nemazana manomwe chiratidzo chisati chakanganisa kana kurasikirwa nesimba.

Kana iwe waida kumisikidza transcontinental foni sevhisi pakati peNew York neSan Francisco, AT & T haina kungofanirwa kugadzirisa dambudziko remasimba echiratidzo uye kukanganisa. Izvo zvaive zvakafanira kugadzira tambo iyo yaigona kupfuura nemumakomo nemagwenga uye kutsungirira mamiriro ekunze.

Vatungamiriri vekambani vakasarudza kuita chimwe chinhu chitsva panguva yacho, kumbira masayendisiti kuti akubatsire. Iyo femu yakatora vamwe vadzidzi vePhD muFizikiki kubva kuYunivhesiti yeChicago kubazi rayo muNew York.

Mumwe wavo aigona kugadzirisa dambudziko racho.

Kuberekwa kwemaBarabhoritari eBell

Muna 1921 Congress yakabvisa nharembozha kubva kumitemo yeantitrust inobvumidza hurongwa hwevasungwa hwaVail kuitwe Muna 1924 iyo femu yakabatanidza madhipatimendi ayo einjiniya ndokugadzira kambani yakazvimirira inonzi Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc.

Laboratories tsvagiridza nekuvandudza michina mitsva yeWestern Electric (iyo inotsigira inoona nezve kugadzirwa kwemidziyo yefoni), uye nekuita switching uye kufambisa kuronga uye kugadzira zvigadzirwa zvine chekuita nehukama zveAT & T. Aya masangano aizobhadhara basa reBell Labs.

Pakati pezviuru zviviri nyanzvi dzakapihwa, ruzhinji rwakashanda mukugadzirwa kwechigadzirwa. Vanenge mazana matatu, zvisinei, vaiita zvekutanga uye vakatsvagisa tsvagiridzo. Iyo yekupedzisira yaisanganisira minda yeiyo muviri uye organic chemistry, simbi, magineti, kuitisa magetsi, radiation, zvemagetsi, acoustics, phonetics, optics, masvomhu, mechanics, uye kunyangwe physiology, yepfungwa uye meteorology. Uye hapana chakatemerwa chero chinhu chiri kure chine chekuita nekutaurirana kwevanhu, kungave kuburikidza netambo kana redhiyo kana kurekodhwa ruzha kana mifananidzo yekuona.

Sezvandambotaura muchinyorwa chakapfuura, chinangwa changu hachisi chekungodonongodza zviitiko zvakatungamira mukuvandudzwa kweUNIX, asi zvakare Ini ndoda kutaura nezvetsika yakagadzira izvo zvitsva. Tsika yaizopa mibairo yakanaka mukugadzirwa kweInternet uye yemahara software kufamba. Naizvozvo, isu ticha mira kurondedzera nharaunda yebasa zvishoma.

Basa mukati memarabhoritari raiitwa mumakamuri mahombe, akavhurika aine pasi pehuni uye akapatsanurwa nembiru dzematombo dzaitsigira kurema kwedenga. Pakazara yaigara nzvimbo inopfuura zana zana nemakumi maviri neshanu yemamirimita. Izvi hazvisi kusanganisira iro denga raishandiswa kuyedza kuti pendi dzakasiyana siyana, machira uye simbi zvinopesana sei nezvinhu.
Nepo mamwe makamuri muchivako akatsaurirwa kugadzirwa kwemidziyo mitsva, chivakwa ichi chaisanganisirawo marabhoritari ekuyedza. yenhare, tambo, switch, tambo, makoiri uye mamwe akawanda marudzi ezvimwe zvinhu. Paivapo chemakemikari mumarabhoritari kuongorora izvo zvinhu zvezvinhu zvitsva iyo inogona kushandiswa kugadzira alloys yewaya uye tambo sheathing, ichiri mukati kanamushure mezvikamu zvechivakwa mhedzisiro yemagetsi magetsi uye switching musanganiswa zvakaedzwa uye maratidziro matsva edunhu aiongororwa. Kubudirira kwekutapurirana kwemawaya kwakatorwawo.

Kuunza masayendisiti uye mainjiniya pamwechete

Bell Labs vaive pakati pekutanga kubatanidza sainzi yekutanga neinjiniya. Zvinonakidza kuti kugarisana kwakaitika sei.

Zvinoenderana nevanyori venhoroondo, pakange pasina musiyano chaiwo pakati pebasa remainjiniya nemasayendisiti. Dzese dzakabatanidzwa nechinangwa chekuzadzisa diki diki inodiwa yekuvandudza nharembozha uye gara uchienda naro kunyika yese.

Izvi zvaisareva kuti kutsvagisa kwekutanga kwakasiiwa.. Vaya vaitungamira murabhoritari vaida vamwe vesaenzi vechidiki vavakashandira kuti vasaone matambudziko ezuva nezuva uye Vachatarisa pakudzidza kuti mitemo yakakosha sei uye zvitsva zvinowanikwa mufizikiki uye kemesitiri zvinogona kukanganisa kutaurirana kweramangwana. Nhengo dzeboka iri dzinogona kusarudza zvekuongorora.

Muchinyorwa chinotevera isu tichaenda kutaura nezve yekutanga mupiro weBell Labs kune indasitiri yemakomputa.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Mhinduro, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira data: AB Internet Networks 2008 SL
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   FAMMMG akadaro

    Chinyorwa chakanaka, mumaonero angu AT&T yanga isina zano kana chiono chekuti kutaurirana, komputa uye gare gare Internet yaizokura sei.

    Chinhu chinonzwisisika kupfuura chirongwa chaive zano, asi kana zvinhu zvikashandurwa pamwe AT&T yaizove IBM.