Ukuqala kokuphela. Imbali ye-Unix inxalenye ye-9

Ukuqala kwesiphelo

I-Bell Labs igcine uninzi lwezazinzulu ezikrelekrele kwisizukulwana sabo. Abanye bade babambe izikhundla zokuphatha kwinkampani engumzali. Kodwa nangona kunjalo, abazange balubone utshintsho olwalusenzeka kufutshane nabo. Utshintsho olwaluluxanduva lweBell Labs. Qonda eli bali kuya kusinceda siqonde kutheni i-Unix ibe yinkqubo yokusebenza yereferensi, kwaye kutheni endaweni yokuyisebenzisa namhlanje uninzi lweekhompyuter zisebenzisa uhlaziyo okanye inkuthazos. Kulabo abayibangayo, xa ndigqiba olu ngcelele kwaye ngaphambi kokuba ndiqale ngembali ye-Unix, ndithembisa ukupapasha imithombo ye-bibliographic.

Ukuqala kokuphela kweziko

Abaphathi be-AT&T benza ezona zono zimbi. Balibele ukuba baqhube inkampani. Bajonga ukuzimela kwabo njengeziko laseMelika kwinqanaba le-apile pie, i-fireworks ye-4 kaJulayi, okanye umdlalo webhola we-Thanksgiving. Bakhetha ukungayihoyi imiqondiso yokuba kukho abezopolitiko kunye nabaphathi abazimisele ukubakhumbuza (Oko kuya kuba yinxalenye yenqaku elilandelayo) kodwa, kwafuneka bajongane nayo xa ingabathengi baseMelika ngokwabo abathumela umyalezo ngokucacileyo.

Xa, kwishumi leminyaka lesibini lenkulungwane yama-XNUMX, uTheodore Vail wathatha intambo kwinkampani, wagqiba kwelokuba ayishiye inkqubo yolwandiso eqatha yabangaphambi kwakhe kwaye. bayavumelana ngeemeko zolawulo olulodwa kunye nabasemagunyeni kuzwelonke nakwilizwe. Ngelo xesha i-monopoly yenza ingqiqo ukususela ekubeni utyalo-mali oluyimfuneko ukwakha inkqubo yonxibelelwano ehlangeneyo (ingakumbi kwijografi ebanzi kwaye yahluka njengaleyo yase-USA) yayifumaneka kuphela kwiinkampani ezinkulu okanye oorhulumente.

I-Vail yayingeyena kuphela owacebisa kwabasemagunyeni ukudalwa kwabalawuli. Wabafundisa nendlela abafanele bayilawule. Iseke injongo yokubonelela ngenkonzo esisiseko kwinqanaba lengingqi ngamaxabiso afikelelekayo.. Unxibelelwano lomgama omde lwaluyimfuneko kakhulu kumashishini amakhulu kunye namaqumrhu karhulumente anokuhlawula amaxabiso aphezulu.

Ndothuswa kukufunda ukuba enye yemithombo yengeniso ye-AT & T yayingadibani nonxibelelwano kodwa yezemali.. Inkampani yafumana imali mboleko ephantsi yokuxhasa ukufakelwa kwemigca kunye nezixhobo. Ngokulandelayo, baye baxhaswa ngemali kubathengi ngamaxabiso aphezulu kancinci, ukugcina umahluko.

Utshintsho, yonke into iyatshintsha

Ekuqaleni kweminyaka yee-XNUMX kwacaca kwabaninzi ukuba le nkqubo imele iguquke. Ukwandiswa kothungelwano lwendlela, ukuthandwa kweemoto, ukukhululwa kwabasetyhini kunye nenani labantu abalibonayo ihlabathi ngenxa yeMfazwe Yehlabathi yesiBini livelise utshintsho olunzulu lwentlalo.

Okokuqala, abakwishumi elivisayo baqalisa ukukhangela iindlela zokuzahlula kubazali babo. Okwesibini, abantu baqhelana nokuhamba kude nekhaya. Xa kwakusakhiwa ulawulo lodwa, injongo yayikukuba abantu basebenzise umnxeba kwiidolophu zabo. Ngoku yayisetyenziswa ngakumbi nangakumbi kwiifowuni ezikude. Ingxaki yayikukuba kwisikimu esinombono weVail, unxibelelwano lomgama omde luxhasa iifowuni zasekhaya ekubeni inkqubo yayibonwa njengothungelwano lothungelwano lwasekhaya.

Kwaye, masingalibali isiphithiphithi esibangelwe ngumhlobo uShannon ngokubonisa ukuba kwakunokwenzeka njani na ngenkqubo yefowuni efanayo ukuthumela imiqondiso yevidiyo nedatha.

I-AT&T itshayele ingxaki phantsi kombhoxo. Esikhundleni sokuphinda ichaze inkonzo yayo njengenethiwekhi enye yokuhambisa iindidi ezininzi zedatha kwaye igxininise kumgama omde, yagqiba ekubeni iphindaphinde imizamo yayo kwishishini lemveli. Ngokuqinisekileyo, ukwenza okokuqala bekuya kuthetha iingxoxo kunye nabalawuli belizwe kunye nelizwe, kwaye ekugqibeleni bayeke ukuxhamla.

Le yindlela inkampani eyaqala ngayo iphulo elinobundlobongela lokuba abantu basebenzise umnxeba ngakumbi kwaye baqeshe umgca wesibini okanye wesithathu.. UMbane waseNtshona wenze i-apile enkulu ngokuyila izixhobo ezihonjisiweyo. Wade wazama (kwaye wasilela) ukuthengisa i-videophone kwimarike yenkampani.

Njengomvuzo waqala ukubonelela ngezaphulelo kubasebenzisi abakhulu beefowuni ezikude.

Into entle ngobukhapitali kukuba umntu usoloko eyibona intswelo aze ayanelise, ukuba nje inengeniso nokuba ithini na imigaqo eyalelayo. I-AT&T yayithintelwe ekungeneni kwimarike yekhompyuter kwaye yayizinikele kwilungelo elilodwa kangangokuba yathintela izixhobo zokuthengisa ezinokuchongwa njengekhompyuter. Nangona kunjalo, ezinye iinkampani Ngaphandle kwezithintelo zomthetho, abazange bathandabuze ukuthengisa utshintshiselwano lweefowuni oluzenzekelayo kunye neemodem ezingabizi kakhulu. Ekuhambeni kwexesha, iijaji zazithethelela ezi nkampani, zizenza zibe semthethweni.

Ngaba uyazikhumbula izaphulelo kwiifowuni zamazwe ngamazwe zabasebenzisi abakhulu? Kwangoko umntu wafumanisa ishishini lokuthengisa. Ithenge izicwangciso zedatha enkulu kwaye yazisika ukuze abasebenzisi ngabanye baxhamle kwiindleko eziphantsi. Kananjalo i-AT&T ayiphumelelanga ukuyinqanda.

Kwaye ekugqibeleni kwafika ukunyuka kwamaxabiso. Amazinga aphantsi enkxaso-mali afunyenwe yinkampani yinto yexesha elidlulileyo. Kwaye, kuba wayengenako ukunyusa umrhumo wabasebenzisi, Yintoni eyayikade iyindlela yokufumana imali ngoku sele iyinto yokuchitha imali.

Ndiyathembisa, inqaku elinye kwaye siza kwi-Unix.

Umlando wokuqala we-Unix
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
I-prehistory ye-Unix kunye nendima yeeBell Labs
Ukudibanisa izazinzulu kunye neenjineli
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Ukudibanisa izazinzulu kunye neenjineli. Umlando wokuqala we Unix. Icandelo 2
Iityhubhu ezincamathelayo
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Iityhubhu ezincamathelayo. Umlando wokuqala we-Unix icandelo 3
Ukufika kwe-transistor
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Ukufika kwe-transistor. Ubungqina bokuqala be-Unix Icandelo lesine
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
UMnu. Claude Shannon. I-Prehistory ye-Unix Icandelo leSihlanu
Umsebenzi kaShannon
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Umsebenzi kaShannon. Imbali ye-Unix inxalenye yesi-6
Ithiyori yolwazi
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Ithiyori yoLwazi. I-prehistory ye-Unix inxalenye yesixhenxe
Imiyalezo emininzi, ifomathi enye
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Imiyalezo emininzi, ikhowudi enye. Imbali ye-Unix inxalenye yesibhozo.

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  1.   zerua sitsho

    Ndiyayithanda le nxalenye yembali ositshela yona kunye ne-revolution kungekhona nje kwiindlela zonxibelelwano, kodwa kwintsimi ye-electronics kunye nendlela eyakhokelela ngayo kwi-digitization ekugqibeleni.

    I hug kwaye ndiyabulela ngokusiphathela ezi zinto.

    1.    UDiego waseJamani uGonzalez sitsho

      Enkosi ngokuphawula.