Uyilungisa njani i-hard drive

I-hard disk yeyona ndlela yokugcina ulwazi.

Ku nqaku yangaphambili sathetha malunga nendlela yokulungisa imiba enxulumene ne-BIOS. Koku siza kugxila kwelinye icandelo elithi, nangona lingabalulekanga, liyimfuneko ukufumana okuninzi kwikhompyuter yethu. Ngoku siyabona indlela yokulungisa i-hard drive usebenzisa isoftware yasimahla kunye nezinto eziluncedo zomthombo ovulekileyo.

Umsebenzi wehard diski kuku vumela ukugcinwa kunye nokufunyanwa kolwazi oluninzi. Kwiimeko ezininzi, oko kugcinwa kusisigxina (ubuncinane de sigqibe ngokuzithandela ukuyicima). Ukongeza, isebenzisana ne-RAM xa kufuneka igcine ulwazi oluninzi kunokuba inokugcina, isebenza njengendawo yokugcina okwethutyana.

Indlela yokulungisa i-hard drive

Ukwazi indlela yokusombulula iingxaki, kufuneka siqale siqonde ubunjani bazo kwaye, ngenxa yoko, kufuneka sazi ukubunjwa kunye nokusebenza kwe-hard disk drive.

Ngaphakathi kwebhokisi ye-hermetic sifumana izinto ezimbini ezahlulwe kakuhle:

  • Iseti yezinto zombane kunye nezoomatshini Inoxanduva lweenkqubo zokugcina kunye nokufunyanwa kwedatha.
  • Inqwaba yeediski ezaziwa ngokuba ziipleyiti. IiPlatters zigcina ulwazi lukwimo yemagnethi kuwo omabini amacala aphezulu nasezantsi kwizinto ezincinci ezinokwenziwa nguzibuthe okanye zingabikho zimagnethi ezimele i-1 okanye i-0 kwintwana yolwazi.

Ukusebenza kwehard drive

Izahlulo zikuvumela ukuba ufake iinkqubo zokusebenza ezahlukeneyo kwi-hard drive efanayo.

Izahlulo lulwahlulo olusekwe yisoftware evumela enye idrayivu ukuba isebenze ngokufanelekileyo ngokungathi ziidrive ezininzi ezahlukeneyo.

Kukho intloko yokufunda nokubhala kumphezulu ngamnye, oko kukuthi, inani leentloko liya kuba kabini inani lamacwecwe. Ukusebenzisa ingalo yomatshini iintloko zihamba ngokulandelelana ukusuka ngaphandle ukuya ngaphakathi. Kwangaxeshanye, inqwaba yeepleyiti ijikeleza ngesantya esingaguqukiyo ngelixa ingcaciso ibhalwa okanye ifundwa. Xa into iza kufundwa okanye ibhalwe, iintloko zingena kwindawo kwaye zilinde ukuba idiski ijikeleze de imigca yentloko ehambelanayo ibe nendawo yedatha efunwayo okanye nendawo eyabelwe ukuyigcina.

Umphezulu ngamnye wobuso wahlulwe ngokwezangqa ezinzulu ezibizwa ngokuba ziingoma.. Iingoma ezihlala kwindawo efanayo kuzo zonke iidiski kwistakhi zibizwa ngokuba ziisilinda. Iingoma zohlulwe ngokwamacandelo ayiyunithi encinci yolwazi enokubhalwa kwidiski.

Ukuchonga intloko, icandelo kunye ne-cylinder kufuneka sikhumbule ukuba iintloko kunye neesilinda ziqala ukubalwa ukusuka ku-zero kunye namacandelo ukusuka kwelinye. Oko kuthetha ukuba icandelo lokuqala le-hard disk liya kuba lihambelana nentloko 0, cylinder 0 kunye necandelo 1.

Nangona kunjalo, iLinux (kunye nezinye iinkqubo zokusebenza) azisebenzi ngezahlulo zomzimba, kodwa endaweni yoko zisebenzisa izahlulelo ezisekwe kwisoftware ezaziwa njengezahlulo. Ngokwesiqhelo, izahlulelo zisebenza ngokungathi ziiyunithi zokugcina ezahlukeneyo.

Kwisahlulelo ngasinye, umxholo ucwangciswe ngokwemigangatho yemigangatho eyaziwa ngokuba ngabalawuli.. Ngelixa izahlulelo zilungisiwe ngokobungakanani kwaye zihlala iisilinda ezidibeneyo, abalawuli banokutshintsha oku kwaye basasazwe naphi na kwisahlulelo. Ngaphakathi kweyunithi yediski efanayo kunokubakho inkqubo yefayile yesahlulelo ngasinye esiya kuba sinyanzelo kumxholo ngaphakathi kwesinye ngasinye.

Umahluko phakathi kwe-GPT kunye ne-MBR

Ukwazi ukubhala okanye ukufunda idatha ethile, i-drive kufuneka ibe nesahlulo esinye ubuncinane kunye nendawo yokufumana ulwazi malunga nazo zonke izahlulelo ezikhoyo, apho ziqala kwaye ziphela kwaye yiyiphi kuzo eqala inkqubo yokusebenza xa uvula ikhompyutha.

Zimbini zikhoyo iindlela zokugcina olo lwazi: IRekhodi yokuQalisa eyiNtloko (MBR) kunye neTheyibhile yeSahlulo se-GUID (GPT)

I-MBR yeyona ndlela indala. Ibandakanya icandelo le-boot elikhethekileyo elibekwe ekuqaleni kwe-drive. Ukongeza kulwazi malunga nezahlulo kwi-drive iqulethe i-bootloader ukuba, kwimeko yokusebenza kwenkqubo enye efakiweyo, khetha ukuba yeyiphi ongaqala ngayo.

I-MBR inokusebenza kuphela ngokuqhuba ukuya kuthi ga kwi-2TB kunye nezahlulo ezine eziphambili okanye ezintathu eziphambili kunye nesahlulelo esinye esongeziweyo esinokwahlulwa ngakumbi ngokwezahlulo ezinengqiqo.

Nge-GPT, isahlulelo ngasinye sabelwe "isazisi esahlukileyo kwihlabathi". I-GPT ayinayo imida yomthamo wokuqhuba okanye inani lezahlulo ze-MBRKwimeko nayiphi na into, imida ekhoyo iya kuba yile ibekwe yinkqubo yokusebenza.

Enye inzuzo ye-GPT kukuba ngokungafaniyo ne-MBR, egcina i-partitioning kunye nedatha ye-boot ekuqaleni kwe-drive, igcina kwiikopi ezininzi kwi-drive.. Ukongeza, ibona iingxaki zengqibelelo yedatha ngokujonga amaxabiso okukhangela amaxabiso e-cyclic redundancy. Kwimeko yokufumana umonakalo, zama ukuwabuyisela kwenye indawo kwidiski.

Iingxaki eziqhelekileyo kunye nendlela yokuzilungisa kwiLinux

Ngokubanzi sinokufumana iintlobo ezi-4 zeengxaki:

  • Ucimo lwedatha engundoqo: Oku kunokwenzeka ngenxa yempazamo yomsebenzisi ecima into ekungafanelanga icinywe okanye ngenxa yeempazamo kwisoftware esetyenziswayo.
  • Isenzo sentsholongwane: Nangona i-Linux inenkqubo yeemvume eziyenza ingabi sesichengeni ngakumbi kunezinye iinkqubo zokusebenza, akukho ndlela yokhuseleko inokusinda ekungakwazini komsebenzisi. Ekuphela kwento efunekayo kukundwendwela iwebhusayithi esengozini ye-malware ukufikelela kuyo nayiphi na idrayivu edibeneyo kwaye iphazamise idatha.
  • Amacandelo amabi kwi-hard drive: Kule meko inokuthi ibe ngenxa yeziphoso zokuvelisa okanye umonakalo womzimba owenziwe ngexesha lokuphatha.

Ezinye zeendlela esinokubona ngazo iingxaki zokuqhuba ngaphambi kokuba kube mva kakhulu zezi:

Umyalelo wedd

Ngalo myalelo sinokulinganisa isantya sokuchwetheza. Kule nto sivula i-terminal kwaye sibhale:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test1.img bs=1G count=1 oflag=dsync

Kuyenzeka ukulinganisa ukubambezeleka ngomyalelo:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test2.img bs=512 count=1000 oflag=dsync

Umyalelo wefsck

Umyalelo we-fdisk udwelisa izahlulelo zazo zonke iidrive ngesichongi sazo.

Ukuphumeza imiyalelo kufuneka sibonise isazisi seyunithi kunye nesahlulelo ekufuneka sisebenze kuso.

Lo myalelo uqalisa into eluncedo ukuba ikuvumela ukuba uskene ugcino lwefayile ekhangelayo kwaye uzama ukulungisa iimpazamo. Ukongeza, ivelisa ingxelo yeziphumo. Kwimeko apho inkqubo ivaliwe ngokungalindelekanga, i-fsck isebenza ngokuzenzekelayo.

Ukusebenzisa lo myalelo kufuneka sichonge isahlulelo esifuna ukusihlalutya. Siyenza ngomyalelo:

sudo fdisk -l

Nje ukuba sichonge isahlulelo esiphendliweyo, kufuneka siqaphele isichongi saso. Oku kuthatha ifom /dev/sdx* apho x ingunobumba oqala ngo a kuqhubo lokuqala kunye * nenani eliqala ngo-1 kwisahlulelo sokuqala.
Ukwenza uqinisekiso, siqala sihlisa isahlulelo ngomyalelo
umount /dev/sdX*
kwaye emva koko siqalise umyalelo nge:
fsck /dev/sdX*

Ukuba sifuna ukujonga iyunithi epheleleyo, sibhala imiyalelo efanayo, kodwa ngaphandle kokubonisa inombolo yokwahlula.

Ukuze uskene isahlulelo sangoku, kufuneka wenze njalo kwimidiya yofakelo okanye kwimowudi yokuhlangula ye-bootloader.

Umyalelo we-badlocks

Lo myalelo fumana amacandelo amabi kwaye ugcine ulwazi kwifayile yokubhaliweyo.

Umyalelo ulandelayo:

sudo badblocks -v /dev/sdX*> ~/sectores_dañados.txt

Umyalelo we-e2fsck

Yiyo ubhaqo lwemposiso kunye nomyalelo wokulungisa ethile kwiinkqubo zeFayile Eyongeziweyo Isivakalisi sithi:

sudo e2fsck -cfpv /dev/sdX*

Umyalelo we-cfpv ubonisa:

  • c Ngoko ke inkqubo kufuneka ifumane iibhloko ezimbi kwaye yongeze kuluhlu.
  • f ekufuneka kwenziwe kwakhona uqwalaselo lwesixokelelwano sefayile.
  • p ukuba kufuneka uzame ukulungisa iibhloko ezimbi.
  • v ekufuneka iboniswe kwiziphumo zenkqubo yokugqiba.

I-e2fsck kunye nee-badlocks zinokudityaniswa ngokuba neyokuqala ifunde uluhlu lweempazamo ezifunyenwe ngulo mva.

sudo e2fsck -l bad_sectors.txt /dev/sdX*

Umyalelo wediski yovavanyo

Ngaphakathi kwezahlulo ulwazi lugcinwe kuluhlu lwezalathisi.

Isicelo seTestDisk sizama ukubuyisela iifayile ezicinyiweyo kunye nezahlulo. Isebenza kunye neLinux kunye neWindows, nangona iziphumo azihlali zilungile.

TestDisk na isixhobo sokubuyisela idatha ecinyiweyo ngabom, ngempazamo okanye ngobubi. Isiphumo asisoloko sigqibelele kwaye iifayile aziyi kuphinda zifumane amagama azo oqobo, ngoko ke kufuneka sijonge enye nganye ukuze sifumane into esiyifunayo.

Ngaphambi kokuba siqalise ukuyisebenzisa, kufuneka siyifake sisebenzisa umphathi wepakethe yokuhambisa kwethu. Nje ukuba ifakwe siqalisa inkqubo ngomyalelo

testdisk

Xa sisenza oku siza kubona iindlela ezintathu:

  1. Yakha ifayile yelog
  2. Yongeza Ulwazi olongezelelweyo koko kuqokelelwe kwiiseshoni ezidlulileyo.
  3. musa ukubhalisa ulwazi.

Emva koko, sikhetha iyunithi esifuna ukuyihlalutya ngekhesa kwaye emva koko siye kumyalelo wokuqhubeka kwaye ucinezele u-Enter. Kwizikrini ezilandelayo sibonisa uhlobo lwetafile yokwahlula kunye nemodi yokubuyisela. Ekugqibeleni, sikhetha isahlulo.

Ukugqiba siya kuluhlu apho ifayile ecinyiweyo yayikhona, siyayiphawula, sicinezela u-C ukuqalisa ukubuyiswa kunye nendawo apho iya kugcinwa khona.

Uninzi lwale miyalelo lunokusetyenziswa ngojongano lomzobo. Umzekelo, kwi-GNOME sinesicelo Ithunyelwe ifunyenwe kwiindawo zokugcina kwaye njengonikezelo lwe Linux olunokusetyenziswa kwimowudi ephilayo. I-desktop ye-KDE nayo inesixhobo sayo sokuhlela esahlulelo.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kukho izisombululo zokubuyisela intlawulo. Nangona kunjalo, ayiqinisekisi iziphumo ezigqibeleleyo ngoko kungcono ukuba neekopi ezininzi zeefayile ezibalulekileyo kokubini ekuhlaleni nasefini.


Shiya uluvo lwakho

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  1.   UGregory ros sitsho

    Ndiyabulela ngokuqulunqa, ngethamsanqa zonke zindihambela kakuhle, kodwa xa ixesha lifika kuhle kakhulu ukuba nenqaku elisebenzisekayo njengale kwiibhukhmakhi.

    1.    UDiego waseJamani uGonzalez sitsho

      Gracias