Umsebenzi kaShannon. Imbali ye-Unix inxalenye yesi-6

Umsebenzi kaShannon

Ukuba ubunokubuza iqela lababhali-mbali betekhnoloji eyayiyeyesibini eyona nzululwazi ibalulekileyo kwi-Bell Laboratories, bekuya kuba nzima ukufumana iimpendulo ezimbini ezilinganayo. Eli ziko ligcine kumaziko alo ahlukeneyo ezinye zefiziksi ezinetalente, iinjineli, iingcali zezibalo, iingcaphephe kwisinyithi kunye neengcali zengqondo. ezazingundoqo kumnqweno wenkampani wokwandisa inkonzo yomnxeba kulo lonke elaseUnited States.

Kodwa xa kufikwa ekuphenduleni eyona nto ibalulekileyo, impendulo isenokuba ngazwi-nye; UClaude Shannon. Kolu ngcelele lwamanqaku Ndizama kangangoko ukuba ndinganiki amagama amaninzi afanelekileyo okanye imihla ukugxila kwiziganeko. Nangona kunjalo, akunakuphepheka ukuma eShannon kuba, njengoNewton okanye u-Einstein, uzenzele inkalo entsha yokufunda.

Wawuquka ntoni umsebenzi kaShannon?

Sasimshiyile uClaude Shannon, umfundi ophumelele isidanga sobuNjineli neMathematika, echulumancile kumathuba omhlalutyi wokwahlulahlula. Yayingumatshini othi, ngokudibanisa iindawo ezahlukeneyo zokuhanjiswa, ubenakho ukusombulula iiequations. UShannon wenze isiphakamiso sokuba kusetyenziswe iBoolean algebra, isebe elitsha lezibalo, ukuyila ezo zixhobo.

Ialgebra yeBoolean ixhasa kuphela iinguqu ezimbini; 0 kunye no-1 kunye no-3 imisebenzi esisiseko:

  • Kwaliwe (HAYI)
  • Isamba (OR)
  • Imveliso (AND)

UShannon wanxulumanisa izithuba ezibini ezinokubakho zokhutshelo ngalunye (ukucinywa nokuqhubeka) neziguquguquko ezimbini (0 kunye no-1). Iphepha alibhale ngalo mbandela lithathwa njengelona ithisisi yenkosi inempembelelo embalini.

Ngaphandle kokucaca malunga nokuba enze ntoni, wasebenzisana ixesha elithile kuphando lwemfuza, kodwa ngaphandle kokulahlekelwa ngumdla wakhe kumbandela wokusasazwa kolwazi. Ukulandela inqaku malunga nendlela yokulinganisa kunye nokucinga malunga nokuhamba kwedatha yomthumeli kunye nomamkeli, waqala ukuthelekelela ingcamango jikelele equka amajelo osasazo awahlukeneyo.

Ejongene nokungena kwe-United States kwi-Second Gerra, wagqiba ekubeni ajoyine iilabhoratri zeBell, kuba zisebenzisana ngokusondeleyo kumzamo wemfazwe, yayiyindlela eqinisekileyo yokuphepha ukubizwa.

Imidlalo yemfazwe

Umsebenzi wokuqala kaShannon weBell Labs yayikukusebenzisana kuyilo lweenkqubo zokulawula umlilo. Umsebenzi wakhe yayikukuphuhlisa iifomula zemathematika eziza kuvumela ukubala indawo yexesha elizayo yeprojectile yotshaba okanye inqwelomoya evela kulwazi oluqokelelwe yiradar.r ukusuka kwindawo yangoku. Ezi fomyula ziya kuthi ke zicwangciswe kwiikhompyutha zamandulo ezihlawuliswa ngokudubula ngokuzenzekelayo kwiithagethi.

Xa inkqubo isetyenziswe ngo-1944, yakwazi ukumisa i-70% yeebhomu zaseJamani eziwela kwi-Great Britain.

Nangona kunjalo, eyona nto yayinomdla kakhulu uShannon yayiyi-cryptography, ngoko ke wazibandakanya namaqela eBell Labs ajongana neendlela zokugcina unxibelelwano lukhuselekile.
. Umsebenzi wakhe ngalo mbandela washwankathelwa kuxwebhu olunamaphepha ali-114 olwathi ngoko nangoko lwachazwa njengemfihlelo ngabasemagunyeni.

Enye yezona ngongoma zibalulekileyo kulo msebenzi kukufumanisa ukuba ulwimi lwesiNgesi lugcwele ukungafuneki kunye nokuqikelelwa. Kwi-cryptography, okukhona ukungafuneki kancinci komyalezo, kokukhona kuya kuba nzima ukuwususa. UShannon ubonise ukuba kwakunokwenzeka ukunciphisa ukungafuneki kunye nokuqikelelwa ngokususa oonobumba okanye amagama ngaphandle kokwenza umyalezo ungabi nantsingiselo. Kukho imifuniselo emininzi yezengqondo ebonisa indlela ingqondo ezizigqibezela ngayo izivakalisi ngokusenza sibone amagama angabhalwanga.

Amagama amathathu abumba ilifa likaClaude Shannon avela okokuqala kolu xwebhu: Ithiyori yolwazi.

Ukuze uShannon athathe inyathelo elilandelayo ekuqulunqweni kwakhe kwethiyori, kwakuyimfuneko ukulinda iilabhoratri zeBell ukuba ziphuhlise itekhnoloji esekelwe kwithiyori eyenziwe kwenye indawo: into ebizwa ngokuba yi-pulse code modulation (PCM).

Iimpawu zomnxeba zisuka kumaza ombane. Iinjineli zeBell zithathe iisampulu ezingama-8000 ngesekhondi yokunyuka kunye nokuwa kwala maza kwaye zafumana indlela yokuwaguqulela kwi-zeros kunye nenye okanye kwi-off and off states.
(Ngaba usakhumbula izinto ezimbini eziguquguqukayo kwi-algebra yeBoolean?) Ngoku, endaweni yokuthumela amaza ngakwimijelo yefowuni, ungathumela inkcazelo echaza ulungelelwaniso lwamanani lwamaza.

Kwinqaku elilandelayo ndithetha malunga nendlela oku okuwuchaphazele ngayo umsebenzi kaShannon

Umlando wokuqala we-Unix
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
I-prehistory ye-Unix kunye nendima yeeBell Labs
Ukudibanisa izazinzulu kunye neenjineli
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Ukudibanisa izazinzulu kunye neenjineli. Umlando wokuqala we Unix. Icandelo 2
Iityhubhu ezincamathelayo
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Iityhubhu ezincamathelayo. Umlando wokuqala we-Unix icandelo 3
Ukufika kwe-transistor
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
Ukufika kwe-transistor. Ubungqina bokuqala be-Unix Icandelo lesine
Inqaku elidibeneyo:
UMnu. Claude Shannon. I-Prehistory ye-Unix Icandelo leSihlanu

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