Supercomputers: zvese nezve aya asingazivikanwe michina

Mare Nostrum muBarcelona, ​​Spain

Ndinofunga nhasi haugone kutaura nezve supercomputing pasina kuhuudza neLinux, uye ndeyekuti, kunyangwe hazvo iyo Linux yakaumbwa pakutanga kuti ive chikamu chemakomputa emunhu, zvinogona kutaurwa kuti yakatonga zvikamu zvese kunze kwekunge sezvatichaona gare gare nemamwe manhamba anonakidza. Uye zvakare, iri chikamu chisina ruzivo rwakawanda rwakaburitswa muchiSpanish icho chinowanikwa kune wese munhu.

Kune rimwe divi, ini ndakakwanisa kuona izvozvo nyika yevanodzvanyirira kana izvo zvinokatyamadza zvido, asi kazhinji hazvizivikanwe kune vazhinji vevashandisi. Ndokusaka ndatora nguva kugadzira nekuburitsa iyi mega post pamusoro pevadhudhudhu vandinotarisira kuti ichakudzidzisa zvakavanzika zvese izvi "zvisinganzwisisike" zvakanyanya, uye kuti kana wapedza kuverenga zvese izvi zvinyorwa hazvichazove nezvakavanzika zve iwe ...

Kupfuura chinyorwa kana mega posvo, ichave iri mhando ye Dzidziso-inoshanda wiki nezve supercomputing yaunogona kubvunza chero nguva. Ndicho chinangwa, kuti ichi chinyorwa cheLxA inzvimbo yekutendeuka, kumberi uye shure. Ndichachiwana here? Ngatizvitarise ...

Nhanganyaya yekuremekedza

Supercomputer uye sysadmin

Kuti zvijekese kubva pakutanga, makomputa atinayo mudzimba medu ari pakati pesimba kwazvo aripo. Chandinoreva neichi ndechekuti hapana microprocessor ine simba rakanyanya kupfuura iyo yatinoshandisa zuva nezuva. Kiyi yevakuru vanoshandisa makomputa haisi mumagetsi-ane simba microprocessors kana zvinhu zvekunze zvakanyanya uye zvakasiyana neiya atinoshandisa mazuva ese mudzimba medu, kiyi yekuzvitutumadza kufanana.

Rega nditsanangure, RAM ndangariro mabhangi, akaomarara anotyaira, microprocessors, mamaboards, nezvimwe. yekomputa yepamusoro ingangodaro yakafanana kupfuura iwe yaunofungidzira kune yauri kushandisa izvozvi kana uine pamba. Chete kana vari vevane makomputa vakakamurwa kuva mazana kana zviuru kuti vawedzere simba remumwe neumwe weaya akazvimirira "makomputa" uye nekudaro vanonyora muchina mukuru unoshanda seimwe chete system.

Ini ndinotaura nezve yakafanana komputa, Ehe. Paradigm iyo inobvumidza kusika makomputa makuru kana izvo zvatinoziva seHPC (High-Performance Computing) kana yepamusoro-performance komputa. Zvandiri kureva ndezvekuti kana uine AMD Ryzen 7 pamba, iine 16 GB ye RAM, kadhi yenetiweki, uye ne8 TB hard drive, ... chimbofungidzira chii chingaitika kana iwe ukawedzera izvi na1000 ukazviita kuti zvishande se dai vaive PC chete. Ingangove 1000 Ryzen inomhanya yakafanana, 16 TB ye RAM, uye 8 PB yekuchengetedza. Wow !! Izvi zvave kutotanga kutaridzika zvakanyanya kunge komputa huru, handiti?

Ndine urombo kana iwe uchifunga imwe sumo yakapusa uye imwe tsananguro ine tacky, asi zvave nemaune. Nekuti ini ndoda nyangwe asina zivo uye mushandisi mushandisi kuti atore iyo paradigm, zvikasadaro havazonzwisisi zvakasara zveiri gwara. Ndinoda kuti urambe uine pfungwa iyoyo, nekuti kana ukazvibata, iwe uchaona kuti michina mikuru uye isinganzwisisike iyo inogara mumahombekombe makuru haizoite senge isinganzwisisike ...

Chii chinonzi supercomputer?

IBM supercomputer

Muchikamu chakapfuura takaunza mazwi ekufananidza uye HPC, zvakanaka. Kuti ugadzire komputa huru, ndiko kuti, komputa ine hunyanzvi hweHPC, kuenzanirana kunodiwa sezvatajekesa. Nedudziro, supercomputers ndiyo michina ine kugona kwayo yerumwe rudzi ivo vakakwirira zvikuru kune iyo yekombuta yakajairika yatinogona kuva nayo kumba.

Pakati pese, angangoita ese kugona kwekomputa yepamusoro zvakanyanya kupfuura PC, asi kunyanya vanogona kukwezva kutariswa simba remagetsi izvo zvinokonzerwa necores kana ekugadzirisa zvikamu, iyo RAM memory inowanikwa kune akadaro ekugadzirisa zvikamu, uye kusvika padiki padiki iyo iyo kuchengetedza kugona, sezvo kazhinji maviri ekutanga akanyanya kukosha kune zvakajairika mashandisiro ayo anopihwa kune aya mhando yemuchina. Kunyangwe chiri chokwadi kuti panogona kuve nemimwe michina mikuru inoda yakawanda yekuchengetedza uye bandwidth pane komputa simba kana RAM, iyi ndiyo kesi yemaseva ekuchengetedza ...

Nhoroondo yevanonyanya kutamba makomputa:

Cray 1: nhoroondo foto

Zvichida imwe yevatangi vekutanga supercomputer, kana sevanyori venhoroondo kuzvimisikidza nenzira iyoyo, yaive muchina wakavakwa muma60 na Sperry rand yeUnited States Navy. Zvino kwaizouya nguva apo IBM yaive mambo mukuru aine michina senge IBM 7030, nevamwe vazhinji. Zvakare iyo Atlas yeYunivhesiti yeManchester neFerranti mukutanga kwe60's semakwikwi eEuropean kumamishini eAmerica. Machina akange atotanga kushandisa germanium transistors sechinotsiva chekare vacuum machubhu (kwete akasanganiswa maseketi) uye magineti ndangariro ekuumbwa kwavo, asi izvo zvaive zvichiri zvechinyakare kwazvo.

Zvino imwe nguva yaizouya iyo imwe huru yakapinda, CDC, iine CDC 6600 yakagadzirirwa nemunhu wekare waunoziva uyo anozotumidza kambani yakakosha iyo nhasi iri mutungamiri mune ino chikamu. Ini ndinotaura nezvazvo Seymour cray. Mushini waakagadzira wakapedzwa muna 1964 uye waive wekutanga kushandisa silicon transistors. Iko kumhanyisa kwakaunzwa neiyo nyowani yesilicon tekinoroji uye dhizaini yakagadzirwa neCray yakaita muchina kusvika kagumi nekukurumidza kupfuura makwikwi, vachitengesa zana mairi emadhora zviuru zvisere emadhora rimwe nerimwe.

Cray dejaría CDC (Control Data Corporation) en 1972 para formar la compañía líder que os he comentado, se trata de la Cray Research, creando el Cary-1 de 80 Mhz y uno de los primeros CPUs de 64-bit en 1976, convirtiendose en la supercomputadora más exitosa de la época y que podéis ver en la imagen principal de este apartado en la fotografía en blanco y negro. La Cray-2 (1985) seguiría el exitoso camino de la primera, con 8 CPUs, refrigeración líquida y marcando el camino de las modernas supercomputadoras en muchos sentidos. Aunque el rendimiento era de 1,9 GFLOPS.

Mari inogona kuita kunge isinganzwisisike, tichifunga kuti iyo smartphone yauinayo muhomwe yako inodarika neaya makomputa eiyi nguva. Semuenzaniso, a SoC Snapdragon 835 kana Exynox 8895 kubva kuQualcomm kana Samsung zvakateedzana, ine simba rinosvika gumi nematanhatu GFLOPS, ndokuti, kanokwana kagumi zvakapetwa neCray-13,4 uye kanenge ka10 zvakapetwa neCray-2. Michina mikuru iyoyo haisvike pasi peshangu dzako kuchinhu chidiki uye chakareruka seicho chaunacho iye zvino mumaoko ako. Izvo zvandinoda kufunga kuti mukati memakumi mashoma emakore, isu tinogona kuve nemidziyo ine simba kana yakawanda sevanyengeri vemazuvano asi ichideredzwa kuita mashoma emadhivhuru

Kuenderera mberi nenyaya, mushure menguva ino yakauya iyo nguva yemasikirwo akaenzana akafanana, kureva kuti, mutengo unodhura mukugadzira machipisi uye nekuvandudza mukubatana kwakaita kuti zvive nyore kuti panzvimbo pemachina akaomesesa, makomputa makuru anogona kuvakwa nekubatanidza mazana kana zviuru zvemachipisi zvakada kufanana neizvo zvatinazvo mumidziyo yedu yemumba seni ndinazvo akataura kare. Muchokwadi, muma1970 paive nemuchina waishandisa iyi nyowani dhizaini uye yakapfuura Cray-1 (250 MFLOPS), yaive ILLIAC IV, ine mazana maviri nemakumi maviri nemaviri macrocrocessors anosvika 256 GFLOPS, kunyangwe yaive nematambudziko ekugadzira uye haina kuzadzikiswa, chete 1 microprocessor dhizaini yakaitwa.

A LINKS-1 giraidhi supercomputer kubva kuOsaka University ingangove imwe yeaya akasimba akafanana machina, ane 257 Zilog Z8001 microprocessors uye 257 Intel iAPX 86/20 FPUs, ichiwana kuita kwakanaka kwenguva uye kugona kupa chaiyo 3D mifananidzo, iine 1.7 GFLOPS. Uye zvishoma zvishoma uye zvine simba uye michina ine simba yaizouya, ichienda kubva kumazana ema microprocessors kuenda kuzviuru senge izvozvi ...

MuSpain isu tine mumwe wemasimba makuru kwazvo muEurope uye zvakare yeane simba kwazvo pasirese, yakagadzirwa neBM uye yakadaidzwa Dzungu, iri muBacelona uye iri yeSpanish supercomputing network yakaumbwa nevakawanda vavo, vakadai sePicasso paUniversity yeMalaga, iyo inotora pazvinhu zvakaraswa mune zvinyorwa izvo MareNostrum inogamuchira nguva nenguva. Muchokwadi, MareNostrum muchina unofadza munyori Dan Brown uye uyo wakasarudzwa senzvimbo yakanakisa yedata (kusanganisa chivakwa cheimba yemamongi yekare netekinoroji yepamusoro), sezvaungaona mumufananidzo mukuru wechinyorwa chino.

Kunonyanyisa kuita 11.15 PFLOPS
Microprocessors 165.888 Intel Xeon Platinum
RAM ndangariro 390 TB
Tsvuku omnipath
Mugadziri IBM
Operating system SUSE Linux

Supercomputer Zvimiro:

IBM z13 Mainframe

Kunyangwe vanyori vazhinji vakaparadzaniswa (mumaonero angu zvisirizvo) supercomputer maseva Uye kunyangwe mainframes, zvinoenderana nedudziro yandakakuita yemakomputa, maseva anogona kunyatso kuputirwa semakomputa, sezvo iwo asiri chinhu kunze kwemakomputa ane kugona kwakanyanya kupfuura akajairwa makomputa, chete kuti ivo vakazvipira kupa imwe mhando yebasa mukati network ... Chinhu chega chinofanirwa kusiyaniswa ndechekuti zvinoenderana nezvinoitirwa muchina, isu tichava nehunyanzvi hwatinoda pamusoro pevamwe kana imwe.

Semuenzaniso, kune sevha yakagadzirirwa dhata, senge Cloud Kuchengetedza sevhisi, chatiri kufarira ndechekuti ine hutsinye hwekuchengetedza. Ipo iyo mainframe yakagadzirirwa kuitisa mashandiro uye mashandiro emabhangi, chinhu chakakosha chichava simba rayo rekomputa. Asi ini ndinoomerera, vese vari vashandisi. Nezvo zvataurwa, ngatitarisei zvimwe zve hunhu hukuru hwatinofarira kubva kune supercomputer / mainframe / server:

  • Chengetedzo: Kana iri komputa huru yakasarudzika, ndiko kuti, yakabviswa kubva paInternet, pamwe matanho ekuchengetedza matanho anofanirwa kuitwa, asi kuchengetedzeka kwakadaro mukati mechirongwa pachayo hakuna kukosha seseva yakabatana uye nekwavari yakabatana nevatengi vazhinji kana inogona kuve tarisiro yekurwiswa paunenge wakabatana neInternet. Asi zvive mune imwe nyaya kana imwe, pachave paine matanho ezvekuchengetedza.
  • Kuwanika kwepamusoro: sevha kana supercomputer inofanirwa kushanda nemazvo uye kudzikisira zvinokwanisika Hardware kana matambudziko esoftware, nekuti kuimisa kunogona kuuraya zvinangwa zvayakavakirwa uye mu100% yematambudziko, kombiyuta yakadzika zvinoreva kurasikirwa kwemari yakawanda. Ndokusaka matanho achitorwa mukushandisa masisitimu ekuderedza anodikanwa uye akasimba reboots (UNIX / Linux), mamwe magetsi emagetsi (UPS) kana kudzima magetsi, kushaikwa kwemasisitimu kana mumwe akakundikana kuti pane replica isingakanganise yakawandisa mashandiro, nzira dzekudzivirira kupatsanura node kuitira kuti irege kukanganisa vamwe uye inogona kuchinjirwa pasina kukanganisa kushanda kwevamwe, kukanganisa kushivirira nemaitiro akadai RAID pane akaomarara madhiraivha, ECC ndangariro, kudzivirira kupatsanurwa- uropi , iva neDRP (Disaster Recovery Plan) yekuita kana paine matambudziko, nezvimwe. Uye zvakare, isu tinoda kuti kuvimbika kuve kwakanyanya, pamwe nehupenyu hunobatsira, uye anotevera parameter anogara ari akaderera kana akakwirira zvichienderana nekuti ndeapi:
    • MTTF (Mean Time To Failure): inguva inoreva kukundikana, ndokuti, inoyera nguva inorehwa iyo sisitimu inokwanisa kushanda pasina kukanganiswa kudzamara yatadza. Naizvozvo, iyo yepamusoro iri nani.
    • MTBF (Zvinoreva Nguva Pakati Pekutadza): inguva inoreva pakati pekukundikana, ndiko kuti, zvakare zvakakosha kuti ive yepamusoro, sezvo isu tisingade kuti kutadza kuve kwakateedzana kwazvo, kana zvisina kudaro kuvimbika kwemidziyo kunenge kwakaipa.
    • MTTR (Kureva Nguva Yekugadzirisa): zvinoreva nguva yekugadzirisa, ndiko kuti, kugadzikana. Tinoda kuti ive yepasi, kuitira kuti iyo system isashande kwenguva yakareba.
  • Kuita kwakanyanya uye mutoro kuenzanisa: Izvi zvinonyanya kukosha kana zvasvika kune sevhisi sevhisi iyo inoda kumhanyisa maapplication kune ayo vatengi, pane supercomputers kana mainframes ekuverenga masvomhu kana sainzi simulation, nezvimwe. Izvo zvinowanikwa nekuwedzera huwandu hwe RAM uye huwandu uye / kana mashandiro e microprocessors. Uye zvakare, isu tinofanirwa kuve nemutoro wakanaka kuenzanisa, zvinoenderana nekutungamira kwemaitiro atinoita, saka hatizowedzere mamwe maodhi kupfuura mamwe, asi isu tichayera kurema kwebasa pane iro rese komputa yepamusoro zvakaenzana kana mune yakaenzana zvinogoneka.
  • Scalarity: kugona kwesoftware uye Hardware kuchinjika pasina zviyero kuti uchinje kumisikidza kana saizi. Rudzi rwemuchina uyu runofanirwa kuve rwakachinjika kana zvasvika pakuwedzera simba remakomputa kana kugona ndangariro, nezvimwewo, dai zvaizokundikana pasina chikonzero chekuwana komputa nyowani.
  • Mutengo: Izvi hazvisi chete zvinoenderana nemutengo wemuchina pachawo uye nekugadzirisa, izvo zvinogona kumhanya zviri nyore mumamirioni, asi zvakare zvinoenderana nekudyiwa kwemuchina uyo unowanzo kuyerwa muMW (Megawatts) uye mutengo wemaitiro anotonhora, iyo zvakare iri yepamusoro nehuwandu hwekupisa kwavanogadzira. Semuenzaniso, kana tikatora semuenzaniso iyo Facebook data centre uko iine server pane kwainoitirwa sevhisi, isu tine mabhiriyoni emari, anenge ma1600 mainjiniya ari kushanda pairi, izvo zvisiri kuverenga vakazvipira mahunyanzvi uye manejimendi, mamwe magetsi magetsi ayo ndeye stratospheric (cherekedza kuti nzvimbo dzedata nhasi dzinodya 2% yesimba remagetsi rinogadzirwa pasirese, ndiko kuti, mabhiriyoni emawati nemabhiriyoni emauros. Muchokwadi, Google chete ndiyo inoshandisa 0,01% yesimba repasirese, ndosaka ichiwanzoisa data rayo. nzvimbo munzvimbo dzenyika uko magetsi ari akadhura, nekuti izvo zvinochengetedza akawanda mamirioni), nezvimwe. Iwe unogona kufungidzira kuti hazvisi zvakachipa kuchengetedza timu yakaita seiyi ... uye hazvisi zvishoma, sezvo server inotyisa iyo Facebook iine muOregon iri mudura reinenge 28.000 m2 inokosha mazana emamirioni euros, hombe purazi remaseva nezviuru zvema processor, madhiraivhi akaomarara ekuwedzera akati wandei ePB ekuchengetedza, mabhangi mazhinji e RAM ndangariro, makadhi enetiweki musango (inofungidzira kuti kune makiromita matanhatu e fiber optic kabling kuti aapindire), uye ese anodya 6 MW magetsi uye jenareta emagetsi sePSPS modhi yekudzima magetsi, ichigadzira kupisa kwese kunoda kuomarara hurongwa nemhepo inotonhodza pamwero mukuru.

Uye izvi ndezvezvakanyanya kukosha maficha, kunyange zvingave zviripo chaiwo mafomu iyo inoda zvimwe zvinhu chaizvo.

Chaizvoizvo maitiro:

ibm z13 chip

Sezvo iyo dzinenge tsika dzakagadzirwa masisitimu Kunge yekutanga kubva kuIBM, CDC kana Cray, zvese zvakachinja nekukurumidza nekuuya kwemachipisi kana maseketi akabatanidzwa uye nemutengo wavo wakaderera, zvichibvumira kutanga kweiyo nyowani nyowani yakafanana supercomputing, nezviuru zvezvinhu. Nekudaro, usafunge kuti maompomputa epazvino masystem akareruka anongoda kuisa pamwechete zviuru zvemidziyo uye ndizvozvo, iwo akaomarara michina inoda kunyatso dhizaini nekugadzira iyo inopepeta zvese zvakadzama kuti uwane zvakazara mairi uye izvo Zvese zvinoshanda mushe. fomu rakakodzera zvinoenderana nekugona kana hunhu hwatinoda kuwana.

Mushure meiyo yekutanga michina inoumbwa ne tsika maseketi kana tsika machipisi akagadzirwa zvakanyatsoenderana nemuchina, isu tatanga kushandisa akawanda akajairwa masisitimu senge microprocessors, sezvatichaona muchikamu chinotevera.

Yakananga microprocessors:

AMD Epyc Motherboard ine zvigadziko zviviri

Pakutanga, angangoita akafanana machipisi ekugadzirisa aishandiswa semakomputa epamba, asi nhasi, makambani makuru senge IBM, AMD neIntel, dhizaini yakatarwa yemamicroprocessors edesktop kana zvimwe zvinangwa. Semuenzaniso, isu tese tinoziva nezve IBM's PowerPC microprocessors, iyo yakaiswa muApple kusvika makore mashoma apfuura pavakagamuchira machipisi eIntel. Idzi machipisi dzaishandiswa muApple dzakapawo magetsi makuru. Nekudaro, IBM ine akati wandei madhizaini emachina mahombe anozadzikisa kuita zviri nani kushanda pamwe, senge SIMBA, kunyangwe vakagovana ISA nePowerPCs.

Chinhu chimwe chete ichi chinoitika neSPARC, iyo kunyangwe izvozvi zvisina iwo chaiwo mamodheru edesktop nekuti iri chikamu chavanotonga kana kufarira kwazvo, hongu kuti munguva yakapfuura pakanga paine nzvimbo dzekushandira pamwe neaya ma microprocessor, kunyangwe izvozvi zviripo zvakanyatsogadzirirwa kushanda pane aya makuru michina. Zvimwe chete zvinogona kutaurwa nezvemachipisi Intel uye AMD, Kupfuura microprocessors yakadai seIntel Xeon iyo inogovana iyo michina diki neCore i3 / i5 / i7 / i9 uye mazhinji maficha ayo (kwete kudaro neIntel Itanium), chete kuti vakagadziridzwa kushanda muMP modhi. Izvo zvakafanana zvinoenda kune AMD, iyo yakagadzirirwa chaiyo kuitisa yavo K8 kana Athlon64 supercomputer inonzi Opteron, uye parizvino EPYC (yakavakirwa paZen).

Pano zvakare ndinomira uye ndinoda kutsanangura mhando dze microprocessors zvinoenderana nemamwe ma parameter:

  • Zvinoenderana nekuvakwa kwayo: Zvinoenderana nekuvakwa kweiyo CPU kana microprocessor pachayo tinogona kuwana:
    • Microprocessor: Iyo yakajairika CPU kana microprocessor, chero iyo microarchitecture kana matekinoroji ayo yaanoshandisa.
    • Microcontroller: zvakajairika (kazhinji zvakaderera-kuita) CPU inosundirwa pane imwechete chip pamwe ne RAM, iyo I / O system uye bhazi, ndokuti, microcomputer pane chip. Kazhinji, izvi hazvishandisirwe mumakomputa makuru, asi ivo varipo kwazvo mune akawanda emidziyo yekumba neyemaindasitiri, mabhodhi akadai seArduino, nezvimwe Asi nekuda kwenyaya yevanonyanya kushandira vanokanganwa ivo ...
    • DSP (Dhijitari Signal processor): Iwe unogona zvakare kufunga kuti aya madhijitari masaini processors haana kukwirana nenyaya yekukunda, asi iwe uchaona kuti zvine musoro sei patinoona zvakawanda nezve heterogeneous computing. Asi ikozvino iwe unongo fanirwa kuziva kuti iwo akananga maprosesa kuti vakwanise kuve nemabatiro akanaka pavanogadzira madhijitari masaini, izvo zvinoita kuti zvive zvakanaka kumakadhi ezwi, vhidhiyo, nezvimwe Asi izvi zvinogona kuve nezvakanakira mune kumwe kuverenga sekuzoona kwedu ...
    • SoC (Sisitimu-pa-Chip-Chip): Iyo hurongwa pane chip sekutaurwa kwezita rayo, ndiko kuti, chip mune chimwe chinhu chinopfuura icho chinosanganisirwa mu microcontroller chakabatanidzwa. Mukuwedzera kune CPU (kazhinji ARM), inosanganisirawo flash, RAM, I / O, uye vamwe vatongi. Asi kana iri nyaya yeSoCs, iyo yakasanganiswa CPU inowanzo kuve yakakwira mashandiro uye inoitirwa mafoni, mapiritsi, nezvimwe, kunyangwe hazvo pari pano paine microservers iri kushandisa iyi mhando chip seyuniti yekugadzira sezvatichaona.
    • Vector processor: irwo rudzi rweSIMD microprocessor, ndiko kuti, inoita rairo ine yakawanda data. Zvinogona kutaurwa kuti vazhinji vemazuva ano microprocessor vane SIMD maficha nekutenda kune iwo ma multimedia ekuwedzera seMMX, SSE, nezvimwe, izvo zvatataura nezvazvo. Asi kana ndikati vector processor ndinoreva iwo akachena, ayo akagadzirwa zvichibva mukugadzirisa vector kana rondedzero yedata pane wega kuraira. Mienzaniso yerudzi urwu rwe processor ndeye Fujitsu FR-V, inoshandiswa mune mamwe makomputa makuru eJapan, uye zvakare maGPU anogona kutariswa saizvozvi.
    • ASIC: Aya mashandisirwo-akasarudzika macircuit, ndiko kuti, akagadzirwa machipisi zvichienderana nekushandisa kwavo. Chinhu chinokwanisa kupa kuita kukuru kune zvimwe zvikumbiro, kunyangwe dhizaini yacho ichireva mutengo wakakwira kupfuura kushandiswa kwemageneral processing units. Zvakare, kana FPGAs ikashandiswa kuzviita, hazvizove zvinonyanya kushanda nemagetsi. Semuenzaniso, mazuva ano anoshandiswa zvakanyanya kuvaka macryptocurrency michina yemigodhi.
    • vamwe: Kune vamwe izvozvi izvozvi zvemusoro wenyaya uyu isu hatifarire zvakanyanya, senge maAPU (CPU + GPU), maNPU, macroprocessor isina wachi, C-RAM, processor yedhiramu, nezvimwe.
  • Zvinoenderana nenhu yavo kana macores: isu tabva kuMono-core kana imwechete-musimboti maCPU kuva nezvakawanda, asi mukati me microprocessors ane akati wandei tinogona kusiyanisa pakati:
    • multi-core: aya ndiwo echinyakare multicores atinoshandisa kazhinji, senge mbiri, quadcore, octacore, nezvimwe. Ivo vanowanzove ne2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 32, ... cores kana cores, pane imwechete chip kana mune imwecheteyo kurongedza asi akasiyana machipisi.
    • zvakawanda core: yakafanana neiri pamusoro, asi ivo vanowanzo kuve mazana kana zviuru zvemakore, uye kuti izvo zviitwe, iwo akabatanidzwa macores anofanirwa kuve akareruka uye ari madiki pane ekugadzirwa kweIntel neADD, semuenzaniso, pamwe nekuwedzera simba rinoshanda. Ndosaka achiwanzo akavakirwa pamaARM cores, akaiswa muchimiro chemataira. Nekuisa mazhinji eaya pamwe chete, akakwirira kwazvo komputa kugona kunogona kuwanikwa. Intel akafambidzana nemurume uyu, pamwe neXeon Phi, ayo ari manycore x86 achishandisa macores akareruka asi akasungwa muzvizhinji (57 kusvika 72) kupa mamwe maomputa epamusoro.
  • Zvinoenderana nekushandisa kwayo: Mune ino kesi, isu tinongofarira chete imwe mhando, inova iyo MP kana multiprocessor masisitimu. Mune desktop yako kana laptop yemakomputa iwe uchaona kuti yako mamaboard inongova nesocket imwe chete yekuisa microprocessor, kune rimwe divi, server mamaibhodhi ane 2, 4, ... zvigadziko pane yega yega, izvi ndizvo zvandiri kureva neMP .

Asi microprocessors iri kudzikiswa zvishoma nezvishoma ichifarira mamwe akasarudzika ekugadzirisa zvikamu izvo zviri nani komputa kugona zvinoitwa, ndiko kuti, iri nani kushanda pakati peFLOPS paW kubudirira sezvatichaona muchikamu chinotevera.

Dzimwe nzira dzekugadzirisa:

NVIDIDA DGX

Sezvandambotaura, microprocessors vanga vachifamba zvishoma nezvishoma, kunyangwe vachiri nemugove wakakura wemusika, asi kune mamwe ekugadzirisa zvikamu izvo zviri kupinda zvine simba munguva pfupi yapfuura, senge GPGPU kana zvakajairika chinangwa maGPU. Uye ndezvekuti machipisi emakadhi emifananidzo anowanzo ari eiyo SIMD kana vector mhando, iyo inogona kushandisa iwo iwo iwo kuraira kune kuwanda kwedata panguva imwe chete, pamwe nekuwedzera kwekuita uko kunosanganisira.

Uye kupfuura zvese, nekugadzirisa mutungamiriri uye zvakarongwaPasina kugadzirisa Hardware, aya maGPU anokwanisa kushandiswa mukugadzirisa dhata sekunge iri CPU, ndiko kuti, kwekugadzirisa kwakawanda uye kwete chete kwemifananidzo sezvinoita maGPU akazvipira, achibvumidza kutora mukana wavo wakakura wekomputa, sezvo huwandu hwe MAFUPA anowanikwa nekadhi yemifananidzo yakakwira kwazvo kupfuura iyo yeCPU.

Chikonzero ivo vanowana kuita kwakakura kudaro kwekuverenga mashandiro imhaka yekuti ivo vanoitwa kuti vashande nemagrafu, uye izvo zvinoda kuwanda kwemasvomhu kuverenga kuti vafambe vachifamba. Pamusoro pekuve SIMD sezvandambotaura, ivo vanowanzo tevera yakafanana programming paradigm mhando SIMT (Yako-Kuraira - Akawanda-Shinda), kuwana yakanaka yekupfuura mitengo kunyangwe kana memory latency yakakwira.

Ndokumbirawo muone izvozvo kugadzira 3D graph, modelling inodiwa iyo inotanga nekubatanidza akateedzana emakona matatu neW, X, Y uye Z marongedzero ari mundege, wozoshandisa mavara (R, G, B, A) uye gadzira iwo maficha, kupa mwenje, kuisa machira kumeso. , yakasanganiswa nezvimwe. Idzo dhata uye marongero eruvara anoreva kuti ane zvigadziriso zvinogadziriswa kuti zviitwe, uye zvinonzwisiswa kuti izvi zvinoratidzira zvinonyatsogadzira maveketa anoshanda nemaGPU ekugadzirisa zvikamu uye ndiwo anoshandiswa kuita chinangwa kuverenga. Semuenzaniso, nepo CPU ichifanira kuita 4 yekuwedzera mirairo yekuwedzera X1X2X3X4 + Y1Y2Y3Y4, ndiko kuti, X1 + Y1, kozoti X2 + Y2, zvichingodaro, GPU inogona kuzviita kamwe chete.

Nekuda kweizvozvo, isu tine maGPU anoshanda pazasi zvakanyanya mawachi frequency, anosvika kashanu kana katanhatu kuzasi pane maCPU uye anowana yakakwira zvakanyanya FLOPS mwero, zvinoreva kuti yakakwira FLOPS / W chiyero. Semuenzaniso, Intel Core i7 3960X inosvika 141 GFLOPS yemakomputa mashandiro, nepo AMD Radeon R9 290X inogona kuwana 5.632 GFLOPS, iyo ine mutengo wekufungidzira weGFLOP yega yega ye0,08 €, nepo muna Muna 2004, komputa huru yeJapan inonzi NEC Earth. Simulator yakavhurwa ine vector processor uye mashandiro akazara e41.000 TFLOPS ane mutengo wega paGFLOPS yaive yakatenderedza € 10.000, sezvo yaive nezviuru zvema processor nema 8 GFLOPS imwe neimwe.

Sezvauri kuona, apa ndipo panofarira kugadzira nhema ikozvino GPU-based supercomputers kubva kuNVIDIA kana AMD pane kushandisa CPUs. Uye heterogenible komputa iri kuve zvakare kukosha, ndiko kuti, kubatanidza mhando dzakasiyana dzekugadzirisa zvikamu uye nekupa kumwe kushanda kune iyo unit inoitisa iyo munguva shoma kana zvakanyanya kushanda. Izvi zvinopesana neyakafanana komputa paradigm, uko iyo CPU inobata pfungwa, iyo GPU inobata iyo magirafu, DSPs ezviratidzo zvemadhijitari, nezvimwe.

Pane kudaro, wadii kuzvishandisa zvese sekurongwa heterogenible komputa kugadzirisa mashandiro. Imwe yeaya machipisi akanaka pane chimwe chinhu, ane zvayakanakira nezvayakaipira, saka regai mumwe nemumwe aite zvavanoita zvakanyanya ...

Kufananidza:

Cary Bheji 2

Uye kunyangwe ini ndisingade kuve inobatsira, zvirinani kwete kana supercomputer anotyairaEhe, ini ndoda kudzokera kuzwi rekufananidza uye nditsanangure zvishoma. Uye ndezvekuti, angangoita kubva pakutanga kwekomputa, kuenzanisa kwave kuchisimudzira mune imwe pfungwa kana imwe.

  • Bit-level kuenzanisa: Isu tese takaona kuti microprocessors yakashanduka sei kubva pa4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit uye yazvino 64-bit (kunyange iine mamwe ma multimedia ekuwedzera anosvika 128, 256, 512, nezvimwewo) Izvi zvinoreva kuti kuraira kumwe chete kunogona kushanda yakawanda data kana yakareba data.
  • Dhata-danho fananidzo: apo pachinzvimbo cheyescal data isu tinoshandisa maveji kana dhata matrices ayo anorairwa mirairo. Semuenzaniso, scalar yaizove X + Y, nepo DLP yaizoenderana neX3X3X1X0 + Y3Y2Y1Y0. Izvi ndizvo chaizvo zvinoitwa nemawedzero aya mumaseti ekuraira andakataura mukufananidzwa padiki-padanho.
  • Kufananidza padanho rekuraira: hunyanzvi hunotarisira kugadzirisa zvinopfuura kamwe kuraira pawachi kutenderera. Ndokunge, zadzisa CPI <1. Uye pano tinogona kudoma pombi, superscalar zvivakwa, uye humwe hunyanzvi senzira huru dzekuzviita.
  • Basa-chikamu chikamu: Ini ndinoreva kuverenga kwakawanda kana kuverenga kwakawanda, ndiko kuti, kuwana tambo dzinoverengeka kana mabasa akarongedzerwa nekernel scheduler yeanoshanda system kuti iitwe panguva imwe chete. Naizvozvo, software mune ino kesi inobvumidza yega yega maitiro kuti akakamurwe mumabasa akareruka anogona kuitiswa zvakafanana. Kana muLinux ukashandisa ps kuraira ne -L Sarudzo, ikholamu ichaonekwa neID yeiyo LWP (Lightweight Proccess), ndiko kuti, mwenje maitiro kana tambo. Kunyangwe nzira dzekusvika pane ino fanano dzakawanda.
    • CMP (MultiProcessor Chip): ndiko kuti, shandisa akati wandei macores uye yega yega maitiro tambo.
    • Kuverenga kwakawanda: kuti yega CPU kana musimboti unokwanisa kubata inopfuura tambo imwe panguva imwe chete. Uye mukati mekuverenga zvakawanda, tinogona zvakare kusiyanisa pakati penzira dzinoverengeka:
      • Kuverengera kwenguva pfupi kana kuverenga kwakanyanya: izvi ndizvo zvinoshandiswa nemamwe ma microprocessor senge iyo UltraSPARC T2, izvo zvinoitwa ndezvekuti inoshandura pakati pekugadziriswa kweimwe uye imwe tambo, asi hazvisi chaizvo zviri kuitiswa zvakafanana.
      • Kuverenga zvakawanda panguva imwe chete kana SMT (Simultaneous MultiThreading): mune ino kesi inogadziriswa zvakafanana, ichibvumira zviwanikwa zveCPU kuronga zvine simba uye kuve nenhepfenyuro dzakawanda kuti dzikwanise. Izvi ndizvo zvinoshandisa AMD kana Intel, kunyangwe Intel yakanyoresa chiratidzo cheiyo HyperThreading hachisi chinhu chinopfuura SMT. Nekudaro, usati watora SMT mu AMD Zen, AMD yakashandisa CMT (Yakabatanidzwa MultiThreading) muFusion yayo, ndiko kuti, kuwanda kwekuverenga kwakavakirwa pamaviri epanyama uye kwete pamamota anonzwisisika. Mune mamwe mazwi, mune iyo SMT yega yega musimboti kana CPU inoshanda sekunge yaive akati wandei macustomer cores kuitira kuti iite mabasa aya zvakafanana, kune rimwe divi, muCMT akati wandei macores epanyama anoshandiswa kuita izvi kuwanda kuverenga ...
  • Yekurangarira-chikamu kufanana: hazvireve kuhuwandu hweyeuchidzo yakaiswa muhurongwa, saka iri izwi rekuvhiringidza. Iyo inoreva kune iyo nhamba yekumirira mikana yekuwana iyo inogona kuitwa panguva imwe chete. Mazhinji epamusoro mascalcal ane iyi mhando yekufananidza, yakawanikwa nekuda kwekuitwa kwezviverengero zvekufananidzira zviyero zvinogutsa zvakasiyana zvikumbiro zvekukanganisa cache, TLBs, nezvimwe.

Zvisinei nezvikamu izvi zvekufananidza, zvinogona kusanganiswa nezvimwe mhando dzezvivakwa kuwana zvimwe zvakafanana, se:

  • Superscalar uye VLIW: Zvichitaurwa zviri nyore, iwo ndiwo ekugadzirisa zvikamu (CPUs kana maGPU) ane akati wandei akateedzera anoshanda zvikamu, senge akati wandei maFPU, akati wandei maALU, akati wandei maYuniti maYuniti, nezvimwe. Izvi zvinoreva kuti mashandiro anoitwa nemhando idzi dzezvikwata anogona kuitwa maviri maviri kana matatu matatu, nezvimwewo, zvinoenderana nenhamba yemayuniti aripo. Semuenzaniso, kana uchiita maitiro kana chirongwa unofanirwa kugadzirisa mirairo Y = X +1, Z = 3 + 2 uye W = T + Q, mune scalar iwe unofanirwa kumirira kutanga oparesheni kuti upedze usati wapinda wechipiri. imwe, mukuchinja kana uine matatu ALUs, anogona kuitwa panguva imwe chete ... * VLIW: mune iyo VLIW, izvo zvinowanzovapo inyaya yemamwe mayuniti, uye muunganidzi anogadzirisa iwo mirairo kuti aigadzirise kune iyo upamhi hwese yeiyo CPU uye kuti mune yega yega kutenderera ese kana mazhinji mauniti anogarwa. Ndokunge, VLIW kuraira kwakareba uko kunoumbwa nemirayiridzo yakati wandei yakapfava yakarongedzwa neimwe nzira yekuenderana neyakavakirwa Hardware. Iwe unonzwisisa sei izvi zvine zvazvakanakira nekuipira izvo zvandisingatsanangure pano ...
  • Pipeline: kufambisa kana kupatsanura kunoitwa nekuunza marejista ayo anopatsanura matunhu, achipatsanura chikamu chega chega chinoshanda muzvikamu. Semuenzaniso, fungidzira kuti iwe une 3 yakadzika pombi, mune izvo zviitiko zvinoshanda zvikamu zvakapatsanurwa kuita zvikamu zvitatu zvakazvimirira, sekunge yaive cheni yekugadzira maitiro. Naizvozvo, kana kuraira kwekutanga kwapinda kwabuda nhanho yekutanga, mumwe anogona kunge ave kutopinda mune ino nhanho yekutanga, achikurumidza kuuraya. Kune rimwe divi, mune isina-pombi system, rairo inotevera haigone kupinzwa kusvikira yekutanga yapedza zvachose.
  • Kuuraya kunze kwechirongwa: mune yakarongeka dhizaini, iwo mirairo inoitwa zvakateedzana seye compiler yakavagadzira kuti vagadzire iyo inomhanya chirongwa. Kune rimwe divi, izvi hazvisi izvo zvinonyanya kushanda, nekuti vamwe vanogona kutora nguva yakareba kana kuti vanofanirwa kuunza mabhuru kana nguva dzakafa muCPU vachimirira chiitiko ichocho chiri kuvharira mhedzisiro yekurairwa kuti zviitike. Kune rimwe divi, kunze kwekurongeka ichave ichingogara ichipa iyo CPU nemirairo, zvisinei neodha, kuwedzera nguva inobereka. Izvi zvinowanikwa kuburikidza nemaalgorithms andisingazopinde mairi.

Kazhinji, mazhinji maCUUs, Intel, AMD, IBM SIMBA, SPARC, ARM, nezvimwewo, shandisa musanganiswa wezvikamu zvese zvekufananidza, pombi, superscalar, kunze-kwe-kuita kuuraya, kunyoresazve kutumidza zita, nezvimwe, kuwana zvakawanda kuita. Kana iwe uchida kuziva zvakawanda, unogona kubvunza Flynn's taxonomy, iyo inosiyanisa masisitimu:

  • SISD: kugadzira unit iyo inogona chete kugadzirisa kuraira kumwe chete nedata rimwe chete. Ndokunge, inoita mirairo uye data zvakateedzana, rimwe nerimwe.
  • SIMD: kuraira kumwechete uye yakawanda data, mune ino kesi fananidzo irimo chete mu data-nzira uye kwete munzira yekudzora. Izvo zviripo zvekugadzirisa zvikamu zvinokwanisa kuita iwo iwo iwo iwo kuraira kune akati wandei data panguva imwe chete. Iyi ndiyo kesi yevector processor, maGPU uye mamwe ma multimedia ekuwedzeredza akawana izvi mukati me microprocessors (semuenzaniso: SSE, XOP, AVX, MMX,…).
  • MISD: mune ino kesi fananidzo iri padanho rekuraira, ichibvumira mirairo yakawanda kuitiswa pane imwechete data rukova. Fungidzira kuti une X uye Y uye iwe unogona kushandisa X + Y, XY, X · Y uye X / Y panguva imwe chete.
  • MIDM: ndiyo inonyanya kufananidzwa nezvose, nekuti inogona kuita mirairo yakati wandei pane akati wandei data panguva imwe chete ...

Uye ini ndinofunga kuti neiyi misimboti yekufananidza iri pachena. Kana iwe uchida kuenda zvakadzika, unogona kuwana masosi andakasiya munzvimbo yekupedzisira yechinyorwa chino uye mandakashanda mukati memakore ekupedzisira e17 ehupenyu hwangu.

Ndangariro masystem:

RAM ma module

Chero ipi nzira yekugadzirisa kana yuniti yekugadzirisa inoshandiswa, chiyeuchidzo chinodiwa. Asi pano tinopinda mune dzimwe nyaya dzakaomarara, nekuti nekufananidza, ndangariro masisitimu anofanirwa kuenderana uye uve neakateedzana hunhu kuti urege kuburitsa yakaipa data. Usanetseke, ini ndichakutsanangurira iwe nenzira yakapusa nemuenzaniso.

Fungidzira iwe unayo imwechete CPU Kuita rairo yekuwedzera, fungidzira kuti iyi Z = Y + X, pakadai panenge pasina dambudziko, nekuti iyo CPU yaizounza yekuwedzera kuraira uye kuudza arithmetic unit yayo kuti iwedzere nzvimbo yekurangarira Y uye X kwavari data uye pakupedzisira ichachengetedza mhedzisiro muZ chinzvimbo cheyeuchidzo. Hapana dambudziko! Asi ko kana paine akawanda maCPU? Fungidzira iwo iwo muenzaniso mumwe weiyo CPU A ichiita Z = Y + X, asi pamwe chete neimwe CPU B ichiita X = Y - 2.

Zvakanaka, ngatipei kukosha kune yega tsamba: Y = 5, X = 7. Kana zvirizvo, kana CPU A ikatanga kuita, taizove neZ = 5 + 7, ndiko kuti, Z = 12. Asi kana CPU B ikatanga, X = 5 - 2 = 3, saka, yaizowana ndangariro uye chitoro 3 mune kero yakachengetwa X, saka kana CPU A ikawana chinzvimbo ichocho, yaizoita kuraira kwakafanana asi mhedzisiro yacho ichave Z = 3 + 7, saka Z = 10. Ooops! Isu tatova nekutadza kwakakomba kwatisingakwanise kubhadhara, kana hapana chaizoshanda nemazvo ...

Neichi chikonzero, ndangariro masisitimu akagadzira akateedzana e nzira dzekuchengetedza kuwirirana uku uye uzive kuvhiya kupi kunofanira kuenda kumberi kana shure kuitira kuti mhedzisiro yacho ive chaiyo. Kunyangwe pakomputa yako yekumba izvi zvinoitika, sezvo izvozvi uine macores akati wandei ari kuwana iwo iwo ndangariro, uye kwete izvo chete, maumbirwo madiki arikushandiswa ayo anotora mukana wekuverengera kuverenga, masuperscalar masystem uye kunze-kwe-kweanouraya kuuraya, chimwe chinhu chinokanganisa. kusagadzikana kwakadaro kana chiito chekugadzirisa chisina kutorwa. Fungidzira pane komputa huru nezviuru zveizvi ...

Asi zvirokwazvo, iyo yakaderedzwa mari yekugadzira chips en masse uye kusimba kwetekinoroji Networks dzakatungamira kukurumidza kuchinja kuenda kumachina ane akawanda akabatana maprosesa uye izvo zvakamanikidzawo memory system kuti ishanduke (Ona kubatanidza), sezvo iwo matambudziko aripo mukombuta yemumba angazowanda nezviuru nekuve nevazhinji ma processor vachishanda panguva imwe chete.

Izvozvo kubatanidza izvo zvandataura zvashanduka nekufamba kwenguva, kutanga neyakaomeswa akasunganidzwa masisitimu ane main memory akagovaniswa neese ekugadzirisa zvikamu; uye zvakasununguka zvakasunganidzwa, nemaitiro umo processor yega yega ine yakazvimiririra (yakaparadzirwa) ndangariro. Kune rimwe divi, munguva dzichangopfuura masisitimu maviri andataura ataurwa zvishoma nezvishoma uye kufambira mberi kwave kuitwa kusanganiswa, pamwe neUMA (Uniform Memory Access) uye NUMA (Non-Uniform Memory Access) zvirongwa, kunyange ichi chiri chimwe chinyorwa chandinogona kutaura nezvacho kwenguva refu uye chingatipa imwe mega posvo.

Kana iwe uchida rumwe ruzivo, ingokuudza muchidimbu izvo mu UMA zvivakwa ndangariro dzekuwana nguva kune chero yunifomu main memory nzvimbo zvakafanana, zvisinei neprosesa iri kuita iko kuwana (ini ndinonzwisisa kupinda sekuverenga kana kunyora kushanda). Izvi zvinodaro nekuti iri pakati.

Ipo mukati NUMA, haina yunifomu uye nguva yekuwana inoenderana neprosesa inoikumbira. Ndokunge, kune yemuno ndangariro uye isiri yemuno ndangariro, mune mamwe mazwi, yakagovaniswa uye yemuviri yakaparadzirwa ndangariro. Sezvo iwe uchanzwisisa, kuti izvi zvive zvinobudirira, avhareji latency inofanirwa kudzikiswa kusvika kune yakanyanya, uye pese pazvinogoneka, chengetedza iyo data uye mirairo iyo processor ichaita munzvimbo imomo.

Ramangwana: quantum computing

La yaive post-silicon uye ese ekutsiva matekinoroji eazvino microelectronics achiri achiri asina kukura uye mumatanho ekuvandudza. Ini ndinofungidzira kuti hakuzove nekuchinja kukuru, asi kuti mikana yesilicon yazvino ichatanga kupera kusvika yasvika padenga remuviri, uyezve kuchauya nguva yehunyanzvi hwehybrid iyo hwaro icharamba iri silicon, mukati ramangwana rakatosvika kure nekusvetuka kune huwandu hwakawanda ...

Mukuchinja ikoko ndinofunga MaARM achaita basa rakakosha uye manycores emasimba avo anoshanda (mashandiro / kudyiwa) uye, aya atove mafungiro avo, pamwe muma2020 iwo muganho wesilicon uchazosvika uye muma2030s ucharamba uchigadzirwa pasiliconi matekinoroji achitora mukana wekudyara yemafoundries uye uchivaita akapamhama zvishoma iwe unoti, sezvo kufa kwakakura ikozvino kunoreva mari yekugadzira, asi kana iwe usinga fanirwe kuita iyo hombe mari yekuvandudza chigadziko ini ndinofungidzira kuti kugadzikana kunotamba uchifarira mutengo. Nekudaro, padivi remugadziri, izvi zvinoreva kukura kukuru kwekuedza, nekuti nekuda kwekuwedzera uku pamusoro penzvimbo pasina kudzikisira saizi yekugadzira kuti vafungidzire kuwedzera kwakakosha mukuita, vangatofanira kupomhodza michina inouya yakawanda voenda kuma microarchitectures akawanda inoshanda seaya maARM andakatumidza ...

Kudzokera kumusoro wenyaya wequantum computing, mamwe akatove akavakwa kare quantum makomputa, asi nokutendeseka vachiona zvandakaona ivo vachiri vakaganhurirwa uye vanoda yakawanda yekuvandudza kuti ive chimwe chinhu chinoshanda kumakambani, uye yakawanda nguva yekuwana kukura zvakakwana kuti ive chinhu chinodhura mudzimba. Sezvauri kuona mumifananidzo inovhura chikamu ichi, ivo vachiri kuita kunge vakaomarara sainzi zvinhu zvekunyepa zvinoda kutonhodza kuzvichengeta padyo ne zero zero ºK (-273ºC).

Iyi tembiricha inoganhurira kushanda kwayo uye kukuru, sezvazviri superconductors. Mumunda wevanotungamira, matanho akakosha akaitwa, asi tembiricha yekushanda ichiri pazasi pe 0ºC, kunyangwe zvingave zvinonakidza kwazvo dai vaizoshanda patembiricha yemukamuri kana mune mamwe marginal akajairika. Pamusoro pechidziro chetembiricha, zvimwe zvinonetsa zvinofanirwa kugadziriswa, senge chokwadi chekuti hwaro uye hwaro hwazvino bhajitari komputa haishande kwehuwandu hwecomputer ...

Ini ndanga ndichida kutaura ma superconductors, nekuti ndeimwe yehunyanzvi iyo mamwe makomputa ehuwandu akavakirwa kuti akwanise kuenzanisa kana kupatsanura iwo makubiti atichataura nezvawo. Nekudaro, haisiriyo wega basal tekinoroji, isu tinayo zvakare ion-yakavakirwa yakawanda makomputa (maatomu ane rimwe kana anopfuura maerekitironi zvishoma) zvichibva pahuwandu hwemaelectron e qubits akasungwa mumisungo ye laser. Imwe nzira ndeye quantum computing zvichibva penyukireya spins, uchishandisa iwo anotenderera mamorekuru kunge quibits ...

Kusiya misungo padivi, ini ndichaedza kutsanangura nenzira yakapusa chii chinonzi quantum computing, kuti munhu wese anzwisise. Muchidimbu, iri rimwe danho mukufananidza, zvichibvumidza ramangwana huwandu hwemakomputa kugadzirisa huwandu hwedata kana ruzivo uku achititendera kuti tiwane zvitsva uye kugadzirisa matambudziko izvo zvino zvisingakwanise kugadziriswa nevatambi vakuru. Zvakajairika. Naizvozvo, ivo havangomiriri chete shanduko yetekinoroji, asi ichave kukurudzira kukuru kwesainzi uye tekinoroji mune dzimwe nzvimbo uye hupenyu hwevanhu.

Tinoenda ne tsananguro iri nyore yekuti chii chinonzi quantum computer. Iwe unoziva kuti izvozvi makomputa akavakirwa paiyo binary system, ndiko kuti, ivo vanogadzira mabheti ayo anogona kutora iyo kukosha zero kana imwe (kuvhura kana kudzima, yakakwira kana yakadzika voltages kana tikazviona kubva pakuona kwemaSeketi), uye iwo macode Binaries ruzivo runogona kugadziriswa kumhanya zvirongwa uye kuita zvese zvatingaite pamakomputa edu nhasi.

Mukupesana, muquantum komputa iyo quantum bits (inonzi qubits, yeququum bits) haishande chete mumatunhu ekunze kana ekudzima (1 kana 0), asi iwo anogona zvakare kushanda mumatunhu ese ari maviri, kureva nyika inopindirana (on uye off). Izvi ndezve nekuti haina kubva pachinyakare makanika, asi pamitemo yequantum fizikisi. Ndosaka ndati dhijitari kana mabhainari logic haishande uye isu tinofanirwa kugadzira imwe pfungwa yekumisikidza nyika nyowani yemakomputa inotimirira.

Dzidzira neiyo IBM Q chikuva: online lab iyo IBM yakagadzika kuitira kuti chero munhu ashandise iyo 16-qubit quantum komputa. Iyo mupepeti newebhu-yakavakirwa graphical interface iwe yaunogona kushandisa kugadzira ako zvirongwa ...

Naizvozvo, iyi nyowani nyowani yeruzivo qubits, iyo inozotsiva zvishoma, ine mukana wekupedzisira nekuda kwekufananidza uku kana hunyanzvi izvo zvinotibvumidza isu kubata mamwe akawanda mikana kana dhata kamwechete. Ndakakuisa Muenzaniso Saka kuti uzvinzwisise zvirinani, fungidzira kuti une chirongwa chinowedzera mabhii maviri (a, b) kana chimwezve chidiki chiri 0 uye chichivabvisa kana icho chidimbu chekuwedzera chiine kukosha 1. Saka, rairo dzakatakurwa mundangariro dzinenge dziri ( wedzera a, b) kana icho chidimbu chiri 0 uye (sub a, b) kana chiri 1. Kuti tiwane mhedzisiro, kuwedzera uye kubvisa, tinofanirwa kuzviita kaviri, handiti? Ko kana iyo nzvimbo yeiyo yekuwedzera bit inogona kuve mune ese matunhu panguva imwe chete? Iwe hauchade kuti umhanye kaviri, handiti?

Mumwe muenzaniso, fungidzira uine HERE kuraira kwakakandirwa pamusoro pemabiti matatu mune isiri-yehuwandu komputa. Kana panguva yekumisikidzwa yakati kuraira iwo mabhii matatu ane kukosha 3, mhedzisiro yacho ichava 010. Kune rimwe divi, iwoyu iwo murayiridzo ne qubits, uko kukosha kwega kwega kunogona kuve mune ese matunhu panguva imwe chete, mhedzisiro yaizopa hunhu hwese hunokwanisika kamwechete: 101, 111, 110, 101, 100, 011, 010 uye 001. Izvi zve kwesainzi simulations, cryptography, kugadzirisa kwemasvomhu kugadzirisanezvimwewo, zvinongo AMAZING.

Ndiani ari kutungamira nzira muiyi tekinoroji? Zvakanaka panguva ino zvinoita sekudaro IBM ndiye mutungamiri, kunyangwe Google, Intel uye mamwe makambani kana mayunivhesiti ari kukwikwidza nekuvhura zvavo prototypes yemakompiyamu euwandu nguva imwe neimwe inokwanisa kubata akawanda maquubit, kunyange hazvo vaine dambudziko rakawedzerwa kune izvo zvataurwa, uye ndezvekuti dzimwe nguva vanoda mamwe emaqubits seyububits e "parity", Ndiko kuti uone kuti mhedzisiro yacho haina kukanganisa.

Matambudziko: kushandiswa kwemagetsi uye kupisa kwakagadzirwa

Thermography yemicroprocessor-centric mamaboard (hotspot)

El kushandiswa uye kupisa kupisa kweiyi michina mikuru idambudziko rakakura kune mainjiniya. Chinangwa ndechekuderedza zvakanyanya kushandiswa uku uye kugadzirisa kupisa nenzira yakachipa, nekuti masisitimu anotonhodza anofungidzira mashandisiro emagetsi anofanirwa kuwedzerwa mukushandisa kwekombuta pachayo. Ndicho chikonzero nei dzimwe pfungwa dzekunze dziri kutariswa, senge kunyudza nzvimbo dzedata pasi pegungwa kuti vashandise mvura yavo pachavo semvura inotonhorera (semuenzaniso. fluorinert kubva pa3M, ayo ari fluoride-based inotonhorera) uye chengetedza pane yakaoma mhepo yekugadzirisa kana inotonhorera mapombi masystem ...

Sezvandamboreva, Google inotsvaga nzvimbo dzine mitengo yesimba yakachipa kwazvo kuisa yavo sevha nzvimbo, nekuti kunyangwe kana mutsauko uri mushoma, mushure memakore zvinoreva mamirioni ekuchengetedza mumagetsi magetsi, ndinofungidzira kuti kuSpain ivo vakaomesa nemitengo iyo yedu inodiwa Endesa anayo kwatiri ...

Kana zvakadaro kupisa kupisa, Inogadzira zvekare rimwe dambudziko, uye ndiko kudzikisira kwehupenyu hwezvinhu zveserver kana komputa huru, iyo inokanganisa kugadzikana uye hunhu hunhu hwehupenyu hwatinorondedzera muchikamu chehunhu hunofanirwa kuve nekomputa. Uye kupisa ikoko kunokonzerwa nekuita kwemagetsi kwezvinhu zvemudunhu, izvo zvinoparadza simba rakawanda rinoshandiswa muchimiro chekupisa, sezvazvinoitika kune injini dzemukati dzemoto, dzine mashandiro asiri akakwirira uye dzinogona kubva pa25-30% yepeturu kana 30% kana kudarika yedhiziri, iine 40-50% yeimwe turbo. Izvi zvinoreva kuti, semuenzaniso mune peturu, iyo chete 25 kana 30% yepeturu yaunoshandisa ndiyo chaiyo inoshandiswa kuendesa simba kumavhiri, iyo yasara 75-70% inopambadzwa sekupisa nekuda kwekukonana kwezvinhu. Sechidimbu chekutaura kuti mota dzemagetsi dzinogona kusvika 90% kana kunyanyisa kushanda ...

Kunyangwe iwo muenzaniso wemota usina kunyanyoenderana, neizvi ini ndoda kukuzivisa iwe kuti pese paunoona kupisa muchigadzirwa zvinoreva kuti simba riri kutambiswa muchimiro chekupisa.

Kana aya matambudziko maviri achinge aunzwa uye achijeka chiyero chekupisa / simba, Ini ndinogona kukupa iwe muenzaniso weComputer supercomputer Tianhe-1A iyo inoshandisa 4,04 MW yemagetsi, dai yakaiswa mune imwe nyika iyo kWh inobhadharwa pa € ​​0,12 sezvakaitika kuSpain, izvo zvaizoreva kudyiwa kwe480 € / awa (4000 kW x € 0,12), uchifunga kuti chakabatana gore rese, iko kunwiwa kwegore kunofanira kubhadharwa kusvika ku4.204.800 (480x24x365). Mamirioni mana euros isiri isingafungidzike huwandu hwemagetsi bhiri, handiti?

Uye zvinotonyanya kutsamwisa kuibhadhara kana isu tichiziva izvozvo nekuda kwekusashanda kwemaseketi edu eayo € 4.204.800 chete muzana ndiyo yakanyanya kutibatsira, uye imwe yakanaka muzana yakaparadzwa muchimiro chekupisa. Uye kwete izvo chete, asi isu takafanirwa kuisa mari kudzikisira kupisa ikoko kusingabatsiri asi kunokanganisa zvikwata zvedu. Pamusoro pezvo, tichifunga nharaunda, kushandiswa kusingaenzaniswi iri zvakare idambudziko hombe kana simba rikawanikwa kubva kunzvimbo dzinogadzira imwe mhando yekusvibisa (isingadzoreke).

Imwe nyaya yemuenzaniso ingangove iyo Chinese supercomputer iyo yava kutora nzvimbo yekutanga muTop500, ndiko kuti, muna 2018 ine simba repamusoro soro. Yakatumidzwa zita Sunway Taihu Chiedza uye inoitirwa zvidzidzo zvepeturu, uye zvimwe zvesainzi, research yemishonga uye dhizaini dhizaini. Inomhanya RaiseOS (Linux), inoshandisa 40.960 SW26010 microprocessors ayo ari manycore (yega yega chip ine 256 cores, iine 10.649.600 cores), madhiraivha akaomarara kupedzisa 20 PB yekuchengetedza, uye 1,31 PB ye RAM ndangariro kana tikawedzera. ese ma module. Izvo zvinokupa iwe komputa simba re93 PFLOPS (ini ndichatsanangura izvo FLOPS iri gare gare kana iwe usingazive). Mutengo waro wakakomberedza mamirioni makumi maviri nemana emamiriyoni uye mashandisirwo akaenzana kusvika pa241 MW, ndosaka ichitora chinzvimbo chegumi neshanu pachinzvimbo cheanonyanya kushandisa magetsi (15 GFLOPS / W). Iwo ma16MW anoreva kuti iwe unofanirwa kuwedzera mari yemagetsi yeTianhe-6,051A na 15 ...

Iyo yekuverenga simba reshiyo inotoyerwa zvine chekuita neuwandu hwema watts anodikanwa kuti ibudise huwandu hwakati wandei, ndinotaura iyo FLOPS / W unit. Kana maFLOPS akawanda pawati muchina unogona kugadzira, unenge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge uchinge wamboita. Kunyangwe hukama uhwu hunogona kuve hunogumira, nekuti zvivakwa zvefriji yakaiswa hazvingabvumidze kuwedzera kunogona kuitika mune ramangwana kana isingakwanise kuiswa firiji yakakwana nezvivakwa zvatinazvo. Rangarira kuti izvi zvakare kutarisisa kune chimwe chehunhu hwavanofanirwa kuve nahwo: scalarity.

Supercomputer Mutero:

Komputa

Zvakanaka, kune nzira dzakawanda dzeku patsanura supercomputers, asi ini ndinofarira kutsanangura maitiro ekuzvitsaura zvinoenderana nezvimwe zvinhu. Sezvandambotaura, vazhinji havafungi sevavavha semakomputa makuru uye ini ndinozviona sekukanganisa kukuru, nekuti ivo makomputa, kana kuti, makomputa ndeimwe mhando yeserura mavanotsvaga kusimudzira kugona kwemakomputa.

Saka ini ndingati iwo marudzi eanonyanya kushandira makomputa maererano nekushandisa Ndizvo:

  • Server: Iyo yakajairika mhando yemakomputa inogona kubva kune mashoma microprocessors uye mashoma RAM mamodule uye madhiraivhi akaomarara ane imwe RAID nhanho, kumakina makuru ane zviuru zvemamicroprocessor, yakawanda inowanikwa RAM uye yakakura yekuchengetedza kugona. Uye iwo anonzi maseva chaizvo nekuti iwo anoitirwa kupa imwe mhando yebasa: kuchengetedza, kubata, VPS, tsamba, webhu, nezvimwe.
  • Komputa: mutsauko uripo pakati pevhavha purazi uye komputa huru padanho rekuona zero, haukwanise kusiyanisa pakati pezviviri. Chinhu chega chinovasiyanisa ndechekuti makomputa makuru akagadzirirwa kuita akaoma masvomhu kana kuverenga kwesainzi, simulation, nezvimwe. Naizvozvo, hunhu hunonyanya kufarira pano ndehwekuverenga. Nekudaro, usavhiringidze izwi rokuti supercomputer ratakapa kuboka iri uye funga kuti maseva nemirairi mikuru havasi vatambi vepamusoro (ndinosimbisazve).
  • Mainframe: iwo akakosha supercomputer, kunyangwe nedudziro iwo mahombe uye anodhura michina ine yakakwira kwazvo masimba ekugona kubata hombe data, sekuchengeta hutongi hweveruzhinji rweimwe mhando, kubhengi kutengeserana, nezvimwe. Kune rimwe divi, pane musiyano wakajeka pakati pe mainframe uye supercomputer, uye izvo ndezvekuti mainframe inofanira kusimudzira kugona kwayo kweI / O uye inofanira kuve yakavimbika, nekuti ivo vanofanirwa kuwana yakawanda data senge ekunze dhatabhesi. Kazhinji, mainframes anonyanya kushandiswa nemasangano ehurumende kana nemamwe mabhangi kana makambani, nepo makomputa makuru achishuviwa nemasayendisiti nemauto. IBM ndiyo inotungamira kambani mune mainframes, senge yayo z / Architecture yakavakirwa pamakomputa ezvikara senge machipisi ayo uye nema distros seSUSE Linux pavari ...

Nezve mhando zvinoenderana nezvivakwa:

  • Clustering: Iyo nzira yekubatanidza makomputa akabatana kune mumwe nemumwe nenetiweki kugadzira hombe komputa huru, mainframe kana sevha. Ndokunge, ihwo hwaro hwatakataura nezvawo muzvikamu zvakapfuura.
    • Pakati: nzvimbo dzese dziri munzvimbo imwechete, senge mainframes uye mazhinji maseva kana supercomputer.
    • Yakagoverwa: maodhi ese haana kuwanikwa munzvimbo imwechete, dzimwe nguva anogona kupatsanurwa nematanho akakura kana kugoverwa nenzvimbo, asi akabatana uye achishanda sekunge aingova mumwe chete. Isu tine muenzaniso muSpanish Supercomputing Network, iyo inoumbwa ne13 supercomputers yakaparadzirwa munzvimbo yese peninsula. Idzo gumi nembiri dzakabatana kuitira kuti ipe yakanyanya kuita komputa kune vesaenzi. Mamwe mazita emakomputa makuru anonyora ndeaya: MareNostrum (Barcelona), Picasso (Málaga), Finisterrae13 (Galicia), Magerit neCibeles (Madrid), nezvimwe.
  • grid computing: ndeimwe nzira yekushandisa nekushandisa zvisiri zvepakati zvakaenzana zviwanikwa, kazhinji kugona kuverenga, kuchengetedza, nezvimwewo, zvemidziyo yakasiyana yakapihwa pasirese inogona kushandiswa kumwe kunyorera. Semuenzaniso, isu tinokwanisa kutora chikamu chemasimba ekuverenga ezviuru kana mamirioni ematafura kana malaptop evazhinji vashandisi, mafoni, nezvimwe. Dzese dzinoumba mesh yakabatana kuburikidza neInternet kugadzirisa dambudziko. Semuenzaniso, SETI @ imba inopihwa kana mesh komputa chirongwa chinoshanda papuratifomu yeBoINC (Berkeley Open Infrastructure yeNetwork Computing) iyo iwe yaunogona kushandira pamwe nekuisa software yakapfava pakombuta yako kuti vatore chikamu chenyu zviwanikwa uye vawedzere ivo kunetiweki huru iyi yekutsvaga kwehupenyu hwepanyika. Mumwe muenzaniso unouya kwandiri, kunyangwe zvisiri pamutemo, iri malware inobvuta chikamu chemidziyo yekombuta yako kumigodhi yemari, pane ...

Kunyangwe varipo dzimwe nzira dzekuisa mazita, Ndinofunga izvi ndizvo zvinonyanya kunakidza.

Ndeapi maomputa makuru?

Masvomhu mafomula

Huye, iwo ekuchengetera akakwirira, ndangariro kana ekuverenga masimba ayo makomputa anotitendera kuti tiite zvinhu zvakawanda zvatisingakwanise kuita nePC yakajairwa, senge zvimwe zvifungo zvesainzi, kugadzirisa matambudziko esvomhu, kutsvagisa, kubata, kupa masevhisi kuzviuru kana mamirioni e zvakabatana vatengi, nezvimwe. Muchidimbu, ndidzo nzira dzakanakisa dzatinoziva kukurumidza kufambira mberi kwevanhu, kunyange hazvo zvimwe zvezvinhu zvakaongororwa zvichiparadza (zvinoshandiswa zvemauto) kana zvekuba kwedu kwekuvanzika, senge mamwe masocial network maseva uye zvimwe zviitiko zvaunonyatso ziva.

Maseva, data hombe, gore ...

Network tambo ine bits

Iwo makomputa makuru kupa masevhisi anozivikanwa semaseva, sekuziva kwako. Aya masevhisi anogona kuve akasiyana zvakanyanya:

  • Mafaira maseva: vanogona kubva kunotora masevhisi kana kuitisa iwo mapeji ewebhu, Kuchengeta, maFTP maseva, akasiyana heterogeneous, NFS, nezvimwe.
  • LDAP uye DHCP maseva: mamwe maseva akasarudzika anochengeta dhata senge iwo apfuura, kunyangwe basa rawo riri rimwe rakadai sekupinda mukati senge iri nyaya yeLDAP kana kupa IPs inesimba senge iri DHCP ...
  • Seva dzewebhu: vanogona kuverengerwa muboka rapfuura, nekuti ivo vanochengetawo data asi iwo maseva akangotarisana nekuchengetedza mapeji ewebhu kuitira kuti vagone kuwanikwa kuburikidza neHTTP kana HTTPS protocol kubva kunetiweki. Vatengi saka vachakwanisa kuwana peji ino kubva kumabhurawuza avo.
  • Tsamba dzemaseva: Unogona kupa email masevhisi kuitira kuti vatengi vakwanise kutumira uye kugamuchira maemail.
  • NTP maseva: vanopa sevhisi yekufananidza nguva, yakakosha kwazvo paInternet. Iwo ndiwo mapfupikiso eNetwork Time Protocol, uye akagoverwa muzvikamu, iwo akaderera akadzika ari iwo chaiwo. Aya mahwendefa akakosha anotongwa nemaatomu wachi ane akanyanya musiyano mukati megore, saka anopa yakanyanya-chaiyo nguva.
  • vamwe: mamwe maseva anokwanisa kuchengeta dhatabhesi hombe, dhata hombe, kunyangwe kuwanda kwemasevhisi emakore (IaaS, PaaS, CaaS, SaaS). Muenzaniso ndiVPS (Virtual Yakavanzika Server), ndiko kuti, mukati mehombe server makumi kana mazana emaseva akasarudzika anogadzirwa mukati mega michina uye vatengi vanopihwa kugona kuve neayo mamwe eaya maseva emabasa aanoda pasina kubhadhara sevha chaiyo uye ubhadharire zvivakwa uye kugadzirisa, chingobhadhara muripo wekutora sevhisi iyi kubva kumupi ...

Uye neizvi tinopedzisa vane mukurumbira muchikamu ichi.

IA:

Uropi mudunhu remagetsi

Mamwe makomputa akagadzirwa ku shandisa AI masisitimu (Artificial Intelligence), ndiko kuti, zvivakwa zvinokwanisa kudzidza kuburikidza nekushandisa kweanogadzira neural network, ingaitwa ne software algorithms kana nevende chips. Mumwe wemienzaniso yandinayo zvino mupfungwa ndeye IBM Blue Gene supercomputer uye neBlueMatter algorithm yakagadzirwa neBM neStanford University kuti ikwanise kuita huropi hwemunhu mune supercomputer uye nekudaro ongorora zvinoitika mazviri mune zvimwe zvirwere zvepfungwa kana neurodegenerative hosha dzakadai seAlzheimer's, nekudaro zviri nani kunzwisisa zvinoitika mukati mehuropi uye nekukwanisa kufambira mberi mukurapa kutsva kana kuve neruzivo rukuru pamusoro pedu nhengo isinganzwisisike.

Zvakare mazhinji maAI masevhisi atinoshandisa anoenderana nekomputa huru, saSiri, kana Amazon (ona Alexa yeEcho), nezvimwe. Asi pamwe muenzaniso unonyanya kundifadza ndewe IBM Watson, supercomputer inoshandisa iyo AI komputa system inonziwo Watson iyo inokwanisa kupindura mibvunzo yakagadzirirwa mumutauro wechisikirwo uye zvimwe zviitiko zvayakagadzirirwa, senge "kubika" kana kuziva mimwe misanganiswa yezvinhu zvinogona kufadza mukanwa .

Iyo yakavakirwa pane hombe dhatabhesi ine huwandu hweruzivo kubva mumabhuku, maenisaikoropidhiya (kusanganisira Chirungu Wikipedia), uye zvimwe zvakawanda nzvimbo kwaunogona kutsvaga ruzivo kuti upe mhinduro. Iyo yakavakirwa pane IBM POWER7 microprocessors uye ine ingangoita 16 TB ye RAM, uye mashoma PB ekuchengetera kuchengetedza iro hombe ruzivo, Hardware inodhura anopfuura mamirioni matatu emadhora. Uye zvakare, vagadziri vayo vanoti inogona kugadzirisa 3 GB yeruzivo pasekondi. Uye kune mufaro wedu inoenderana nemamwe mapurojekiti emahara uye SUSE Linux Enterprise Server inoshanda sisitimu.

Sayenzi Kunyorera:

Asi makomputa makuru anonyanya kushandiswa kushandiswa kwesainzi, kungave kwekutsvagisa kazhinji kana kwekushandisa kwemauto. Semuenzaniso, ivo vanoshandiswa kuita kuwanda kwekuverenga pane yakawanda uye yenyukireya fizikisi, zvidzidzo pazvinhu zvakaita seCERN supercomputer inoita, simulation yekunzwisisa maitiro epakutanga mamorekuru kana zvimedu, kuyerera kwemvura, senge CFD yakamboshandiswa kudzidza erodynamics dzemotokari dzemijaho, ndege, nezvimwe.

Zvakare kune zvimwe zvidzidzo zve chemistry, biology uye mushonga. Semuenzaniso, kuyedza kunzwisisa zvirinani hunhu hwezvimwe zvirwere kana kudzokororazve mabundu kubereka uye nekudaro kuyedza kutsvaga mhinduro iri nani yekenza. Dan Brown akataura nezve MareNostrum, kuti pamwe mushonga wecancer uchauya kubva mairi, netariro saizvozvo uye kuti uchave uri nani nekukurumidza. Ku UMA (University of Malaga) anoshanda Miguel Ujaldon kuti isu takakwanisa kubvunzurudza muLxA chete nekuda kwezvavakaita neNVIDIA CUDA mukukwikwidza, uye anokwanisa kutaura nezvezviitiko izvi zvinozovandudza hutano hwedu ... ndinogona zvakare kufunga nezve kumwe kunoshanda, sekudzidza uye kufanotaura nezvezvakasikwa zviitiko zvakaita semamiriro ekunze, zvidzidzo zveDNA tambo uye shanduko, kupeta kweprotein uye kuongorora kwe nyukireya.

Ramba uchifunga, izvo kune izvi zvese zvidzidzo uye kuferefeta huwandu hwakakura hwekuverenga hunodiwa chaiyo chaiyo masvomhu uye kufambisa yakawanda data nekukurumidza zvakanyanya, chimwe chinhu icho dai vanhu vaifanira kuzviita nerubatsiro chete rwehungwaru hwavo zvinogona kutora mazana emakore kuti vawane mhinduro, nepo nemachina aya mumasekondi mashoma huwandu hwakaipa hwemasvomhu maitiro.

Ndeapi ane simba kwazvo pasi?

Sunway Taihulight

Ini ndanga ndichito ratidza pazviri mune zvimwe zviitiko, pane runyorwa rwemakomputa mazana mashanu ane simba kwazvo pasirese izvo zvinogadziriswa nguva nenguva. Zvayo ndezve Top500, uko iwe kwaunowanawo kuwanda kwehuwandu pamusoro pemakina aya, ruzivo, nezvimwe, pamwe nerumwe runyorwa rwunonzi Green500 iyo inotarisa pane iro simba rekushandisa, ndiko kuti, kwete chete kuyera zvakakomba ZVIMWE izvo muchina unogona kukudziridza, asiwo pane runyorwa rwemakina mazana mashanu ane yakanakisa FLOPS / W chiyero.

Nekudaro, panogona kunge paine makomputa makuru ane simba kupfuura aya asingaonekwe pane rondedzero, pamwe nekuti anoitirwa zvakavanzika zvirongwa zvehurumende kana nekuti nekuda kwehunhu hwavo havasvitse zvimwe zvinodiwa kuti zviongororwe kuburikidza nemiyedzo yebenchmark yatichatsanangura muchikamu chinotevera uye nekudaro mhedzisiro haina kuburitswa muTop500 iyi. Pamusoro pezvo, zvinofungidzirwa kuti mimwe michina yakamisikidzwa zvakanaka pane ino runyorwa inogona kunge ichichinja mhedzisiro iyi nekuti yakanyatsogadziriswa kunyorera zvakanaka mukuwongorora kwekuita uku, kunyangwe mukuita kwacho hakuna kunyanya.

benchmarks

Girafu yeFLOPS CPU vs GPU

Miedzo yekumisikidza makomputa aya paTop500 runyorwa kana kuyera mashandiro evose vari kunze kwerondedzero inozivikanwa kune vese, kutaura zvazviri akafanana kana akafanana neaya atinoita kumakomputa edu epamba kana nharembozha ona mashandiro ako. Ndiri kutaura nezve software benchmarks. Aya marudzi emapurogiramu akanyanya zvidimbu zvekodhi izvo zvinoita mamwe masvomhu mashandiro kana zvishwe zvinoshanda kuyera nguva inotora kuti muchina uzviite.

Maererano ne giredhi rakawanikwa, ichaiswa panzvimbo yakataurwa kana mashandiro angave nemuchina uyu munyika inoshanda, nekuda kwekuferefetwa kwatakatsanangura kare. Kazhinji, mabhenji anoyedzawo zvimwe zvinhu, kwete chete iyo yekugadzirisa unit, asiwo iyo RAM, giraidhi kadhi, hard drive, I / O, nezvimwe. Uye zvakare, iwo anonyanya kushanda kwete chete ekuziva mashandiro ayo muchina anogona kusvika, asi kuziva izvo zvinoda kukwidziridzwa kana kuwedzerwa ...

ari mhando dzeyedzo Zvinogona kuiswa muzvinhu zvakagadzirwa, zvakaderera / zvakakwirira, uye zvimwe. Iwo ekutanga ndeaya mabvunzo kana zvirongwa zvakanyatso gadzirirwa kuyera mashandiro (semuenzaniso: Dhrystone, Whetstone, ...), nepo iwo epasi-epasi iwo ari iwo anoyera mashandiro echinhu zvakananga, senge latency yeyeuchidzo. , ndangariro dzekuwana nguva, IPC, nezvimwe. Panzvimbo pezvo, iwo epamusoro-soro anoedza kuyera mashandiro emaseti ezve zvinhu, semuenzaniso, kumhanya kwekukodha, kumanikidza, nezvimwe, zvinoreva kuyera mashandiro ese echinhu chehardware chinokanganisa mairi, mutyairi uye kubata kuti OS inozviita. Mamwe ese ebvunzo anogona kushandiswa kuyera kushandiswa kwesimba, tembiricha, network, ruzha, kuwanda kwebasa, nezvimwe.

Zvichida chirongwa chinonyanya kuzivikanwa chebenchmarking supercomputers ndeche LINPACK, sezvo yakave nepamuviri kuyera mashandiro musainzi uye mainjiniya masystem. Chirongwa ichi chinoshandisa zvakanyanya nzvimbo dzinoyangarara, saka mhedzisiro inotsamira zvakanyanya pane zvinogona kuitwa neFPU yesystem uye izvi ndizvo chaizvo zvakakosha kuyera mumashomputa mazhinji. Uye apa ndipo patinokwanisa kuyera iyo unit iyo yatakataura nezvayo zvakanyanya muchinyorwa: MAFUPA.

ari MAFUURA (Akayangarara Point Kushanda paChipiri) Inoyera huwandu hwekuverenga kana kuyangarara-poindi mashandiro ayo komputa yaanogona kuita mune imwe sekondi. Unotoziva kuti makomputa anogona kuita mhando mbiri dzekushanda, aine manhamba uye aine nzvimbo dzinoyangarara, ndiko kuti, nenhamba kubva kuseti yenhamba yakasikwa (… -3, -2, -1,0,1,2,3,… ) uye nemaseti enhamba dzenhamba (zvikamu). Chaizvoizvo patinoshanda nemafananidzo, 3D mifananidzo, kana akaomesesa masvomhu kuverenga, fizikisi kana mainjiniya, ndiwo aya nzvimbo dzinoyangarara nzvimbo dzakanyanya kuwanda uye isu tinofarira muchina unogona kuzvibata nekukurumidza ...

Multiple zita Kufungidzira Kufanana
- Maropa 1
Kilo KFLOPS 1000
Mega MFLOPS 1.000.000
Jig GFLOPS 1.000.000.000
Tera TFLOPS 1.000.000.000.000
peta PFLOPS 1.000.000.000.000.000
exe EFLOP 1.000.000.000.000.000.000
Zeta ZFLOPS 1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000
Yota YFLOPS 1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000

Ndokunge, tiri kutaura nezvemuchina Sunway Taihu Chiedza Inogona kuita yakanyanya kutakura ingangoita 93.014.600.000.000.000 yekuyangarara nzvimbo musekondi yega yega. Zvinoshamisa!

Zvikamu zvemakomputa makuru: zvinovakwa sei?

Node yekomputa

Wakatove watoona mukati mechinyorwa mazhinji mifananidzo yakawanda yeavo server mapurazi, iwo akajairwa makamuri mahombe ane huwandu hwakawanda wiring kuburikidza nesiringi kana pasi pevhu iyo inobatanidza iwo mahombodo mahombe akaenderana kunge mumakoridho. Zvakanaka ikozvino inguva yekuona kuti iwo makabati ari chii uye izvo zvirimo mukati, kunyangwe panguva ino, ndinofunga unotoziva chaizvo zvatiri kutaura nezvazvo.

Zvikamu zvemakomputa makuru:

Zvikamu zvemakomputa

Kana iwe ukatarisa mufananidzo wekare wekuvakwa kweiyo IBM supercomputer inoratidza chaizvo mushe zvakagadzirwa sei. Inogona kutendwa zvakanaka zvikamu kubva pane yakapusa kusvika kune yakaunganidzwa seti. Sezvauri kuona, chinhu chekutanga ndicho chip, ndokuti CPU kana microprocessor inoshandiswa sehwaro. Semuenzaniso, fungidzira iri AMD EPYC. Zvino, yakati AMD EPYC ichaiswa mubhodhi reamai iro rinowanzo kuve nezvigadziko zviviri kana zvina, saka chimwe nechimwe chazvo chinenge chiine ma1 kana maviri maEPYCs kusiyana nemabhodhi emaamai atinayo mumakomputa edu asiri eMP.

Zvakanaka, isu tatova nebhodhi ine machipisi akati wandei, uyezve iro bhodhi reamai rinenge riinewo zvakajairika zvinhu zvinowedzerwa pairi. amai pakombuta yekumba, ndokuti, ndangariro mabhengi, zvichingodaro. Imwe yeaya mahwendefa inowanzodaidzwa compute mota sezvaunoona mumufananidzo. Uye iwo anowanzo akarongedzwa mumadhirowa esimbi chete kana kuiswa mumapoka akati wandei. Aya madhirowa ndiwo aunoona mumufananidzo wedhimoni kodhi kodhi. Idzi node kana madhirowa anoiswa mumatiraki ayo anowanzove nezviyero zvakaenzana nemapoka (pakati-ndege. makabati, iyo PSU kana magetsi, mamwe mataresi ayo anenge aine madhiraivha akaomarara akagadzirwa muRADI, nezvimwe.

Iwo rairi uko aya "madhirowa" kana maodhi atakataura nezvawo akaiswa akaiswa munzira mbiri dzinogona kuita: blade uye  rack (machira), senge iyo yatinoona mumifananidzo yakasiyana. Sezvandamboreva, vanowanzove nezviyero zvakaenzana kuitira kuti zvinhu zvinopinda mukati zvikwane zvakanaka sezvazvinoitika ne desktop desktop tower, ine zviyero mumasendimita kuitira kuti parege kuva nedambudziko pakuisa chero chinhu mumabays. Uye zvakare, maRak haawanzo kuenda ega, nekuti anogona zvakare kuiswa mumapoka anotaridzika semakabati mahombe ane zvimwe zvinobatsira kana zvichidikanwa.

Zvichienderana nesaizi yeiyo mainframe, server kana supercomputer, huwandu hwemakabati huchave hukuru kana hushoma, asi iwo anogara achibatanidzwa nemakadhi avo enetwork pamwe chete, kazhinji vachishandisa zvine simba kusangana masisitimu kuita kwakanyanya uye fiber optic, kuitira kuti vashande sekombuta imwe chete. Rangarira kuti tiri kutaura pamusoro peavo vakagoverwa, nekudaro, makabati aya anogona kunge ari muchivako chimwe chete kana kugoverwa kune dzimwe nzvimbo, mune iyo mamiriro anozobatana neWAN kana Internet network kuitira kuti vashande pamwe chete. Nenzira, mambure angaite benzi rekukurumidza kwedu fiber kubatana pamba ...

Mhando dzekutonhora:

Kutonhora nzvimbo yeGoogle data

Isu takatotaura nezve kunetsekana kwe firijiMuchokwadi, chinhu chimwe chinomira kunze kana iwe uchipinda mune server purazi kana dhata nzvimbo irwo ruzha rukuru rwunowanzo kuve mune mamwe uye madhisheni. Izvi zvinodaro nekuda kweaya masisitimu anotonhora ayo anoda kuchengetedza masisitimu pane tembiricha yakakodzera. Uye izvo zvaunoona mumufananidzo uri pamusoro hazvisi zvakare kupfuura kana pasi pekamuri uko iyo yese yekubatsira firiji system yeimwe yemapazi aya iripo, sezvaunoona iri yakakura kwazvo, yakaoma uye inoita kunge isinga "yakachipa" kuchengetedza.

Izvo izvo zvakapetwa nemhepo zvinoda hombe makamuri ekugadzirisa mhepoKana iwe ukanyunyuta nezve bhiri muzhizha yekuisa gadget yako, fungidzira izvi. Uye izvo zvinogadzira ruzha rukuru uye madrafti andakambotaura kare. Uye mune nyaya yekuve mvura yakatonhora, chinhu hachisi nani zvakanyanya sekukosheswa kwachinoitwa, pamwe neyakaomeswa mapaipi, kuongororwa kunoteedzera kudonha, uye kuda kushandisa zviuru kana mamirioni emarita emvura.

Inokurukurwa pamusoro pekushandisa mvura yakashandiswazve mumiti yekurapa kana kutora mvura inonaya kuitira kuti isatore mvura zhinji iyi, uye zvakare zvandakambotaura, kutsvaga nzvimbo dzemadhata. pasi pegungwa kana pamapuratifomu pamusoro penyanza kushandisa mvura yegungwa sefiriji. Parizvino mvura inopfuurwa nepanobva panopisa kuti ichiburitsa iwo madhigirii ekuwedzera uye ipapo mvura inopisa inoputirwa kumusoro kuti itonhorere tururu kuti itonhorere zvakare uye kutenderera kunotanga zvakare. Dzimwe nzira dzekuyedza dzakagadziriswazve kushandisa mamwe mafiriji emvura mumasisitimu ekuchinjana kudzikisira tembiricha yemvura, pasina anodhura emvura macompress.

Interconnection network:

Network zvinongedzo zve supercomputer

Iwo maratidziro kuburikidza nawo interconnect Idzo node dzakasiyana uye raks yemaseva kana supercomputer ndeye Ultra-inokurumidza fiber optic network, sezvo mabhodhoro ayo angaite iyi paradigm yezvinhu zvakakura zvakafanana zveboka zvisashande zvinofanirwa kudzivirirwa. Kana muchina uine chinongedzo nekunze, ndinoreva kana ichibatana neInternet, bandwidth yavanobata yakakura kwazvo sezvaungafungidzira.

Semuenzaniso, Myrinet uye Infiniand-mhando sumbu yekubatanidza matekinoroji akajairwa. Semuenzaniso, mune iyo kesi ye Myrinet Iyo inoumbwa nemambure makadhi akagadzirwa zvakanangana nerudzi urwu rwekubatanidza iyo ichaiswa mudhirowa kana node iyo yatinotsanangudza muchikamu chezvikamu. Tambo dzeFibre optic (kumusoro / kwakadzika) kwakabatana nechunhu chimwe chete kuchabuda / kuchipinda. Iko kuwirirana kunoitwa kuburikidza nema switch kana ma routers, ayo anenge ari mumakabati. Ivo zvakare vanowanzo kuve nemhosva yakanaka shiviriro, uye vakachinja kuti vabudirire kumhanya kwe10 Gbit /.

Pane kudaro, infini band yapfuura zvemberi uye ndiyo nzira iri kushandiswa zvakanyanya. Iyo sisitimu ine kumhanyisa kumhanya, yakaderera latency uye yakaderera CPU pamusoro, inova mukana pamusoro peMyrnet, ichibvumira iyo CPU simba kuti ishandiswe pazvinangwa zvayakatarisirwa kuti ishandiswe, kubvisa hushoma kubata manejimendi. . Uye zvakare, iwo muyero unochengetedzwa uye kuvandudzwa kwete nekambani senge yapfuura, asi nesangano rakanzi IBTA.

SaMyrnet, Infiniband inoshandisa makadhi enetiweki (akabatana nePCI Express slots) yekubatana, ine fiber optic cabling, iine bidirectional serial bhazi izvo zvinodzivirira matambudziko emabhazi akafanana anofambidzana nematunhu marefu. Kunyangwe iri serial, inogona kusvika pa2,5 Gbit / s kumhanya kune yega nzira yeimwe yeanobatanidza, ichisvika pakunyura kupfuura mune mamwe mavhezheni ayo angangoita 96 Gbps.

Kugadziriswa uye manejimendi:

Sysadmin mukadzi ane server

Makomputa makuru kana maseva anozove ne bato revashandi, vese zvavo vanofarira zvemabasa kana masevhisi ane muchina chaizvo. Kazhinji isu tinoshandiswa mumakomputa epamba kune chokwadi chekuti isu tinowanzo kuve ma sysadmins emasisitimu edu uyezve vashandisi vanoishandisa. Asi izvo hazviitike mune izvi zviitiko, kana iri sevha, vashandisi vanozove vatengi uye kana iri komputa huru vashandisi vanove masayendisiti kana chero arikuishandisa ...

  • Mainjiniya uye vanogadzira: ivo vanogona kutarisira kuti muchina kana mashandiro akakodzera.
  • Vatariri veSystem: iyo sysadmins ichave iri pamusoro pekugadzirisa iyo inoshanda sisitimu yakaiswa pane supercomputer kuti ishande nemazvo. Muzhinji, aya maseva kana supercomputer haawanzo kuve nemamiriro edesktop kana graphical interfaces, saka zvese zvinowanzoitwa kubva kuchiteshi. Ichi ndicho chikonzero sysadmins dzinogona kubatana kumuchina kuburikidza neyakagomara panyama kana, kana kure kure manejimendi kuchikwanisika, vanozobatana vari kure kuburikidza nessh uye mamwe maitiro akafanana kuita mirairo inodiwa.

ssh terminal linux

  • Vamwe maneja: kana paine dhatabhesi, mawebhusaiti, uye mamwe masisitimu aripo pamushini.
  • Nyanzvi dzekuchengetedza: dzinogona kuve dzemhando dzinoverengeka, dzimwe dziri kutarisira kuchengetedzeka kwepanyama kana kwekukomberedza, ndiko kuti, nemakamera ekutarisa, chengetedzo munzvimbo dzinopinda kune data data, zvakare inodzivirira njodzi dzinogona kuitika (semuenzaniso: moto), nezvimwewo, asi zvakare nyanzvi dzekuchengetedza dzinochengetedza sisitimu kuti dzidzivise kurwiswa kunogona kuitika.
  • Nyanzvi: kuti pachavewo neakasiyana kwazvo, nevarairidzi vanoona nezvekuchengetedzwa kwezvivakwa, matekinoroji, varapi vanoona nezve kutsiva zvinhu zvakakanganiswa kana kuzvigadzirisa. Kazhinji vane zvimumumu zvimumumu uye mavari software inovaudza kana kuisa mucherechedzo wechinhu chakakuvadzwa, uye sekunge yaive mutambo wegridhi iyo ichapa akateedzana ehurongwa kuitira kuti nyanzvi izive kuti ndeipi nhandare yekuenda kuzotsiva chaiyo chinhu chiri kukundikana. Naizvozvo, makoridho uye racks anozomakwa sekunge yaive nzvimbo yekupaka. Uye zvakare, mukati memukamuri macho mune kazhinji masherufu ane mabhokisi ezvipenga zvinhu kuti akwanise kutsiva izvo zvinokundikana. Ehezve izvi zvinoitwa kupisa, ndokuti, pasina kudzima system. Ivo vanobvisa iyo node, kutsiva icho chinhu, kuisa iyo node uye kubatanidza apo vamwe vese vacharamba vachishanda ...

Pandakati temu mbeveve chinourayaNdiri kutaura nezve mhando yetafura ine mavhiri ayo anowanzo kuwanikwa mumhando idzi dzemasaiti uye ane skrini uye keyboard. Iyi switchboard inogona kusunganidzwa kuseva kana supercomputer kuitira kuti nyanzvi kana sysadmin ikwanise kuita macheki avo.

Masisitimu anoshanda:

Sezvaunenge uchitoziva, Linux yakagadzirwa nechinangwa chekukunda iyo desktop desktop, asi zvinoshamisika kuti ndiyo yega chikamu iyo isingatonge nhasi. Iyo desktop inenge yakazvimiririra neMicrosoft neWindows yayo, inoteverwa kure kure neApple MacOS ine mugove wepakati pe6-10% uye 2-4% yeGNU / Linux ...

Iwo manhamba haanyatso kuvimbika, nekuti iwo masosi ayo akazvipira kuita izvi zvidzidzo dzimwe nguva haaite bvunzo nenzira yakakwana, kana kurerekera mune dzimwe nzvimbo dzepasi ... Pamusoro pezvo, mamwe anosanganisira ChromeOS uye mamwe ma distros chete. GNU / Linux pane iyo quota. Semuyenzaniso, Netmarketshare yakaburitsa chidzidzo chakaisa Linux pa4,83% uye MacOS pa6,29%, ndiko kuti, padyo chaizvo. Ini ndinofunga kuti muchidzidzo ichocho vakaisawo ChromeOS. Zvisinei, zvishoma kana zvichienzaniswa ne88,88% iyo yavanopa kuWindows, kunyangwe iri nani kwazvo kupfuura FreeBSD (0,01%) uye mamwe masisitimu anoshanda asina kana kuenzana FreeBSD akawedzera ese pamwechete.

Kune rimwe divi, aya manhamba anotya haaitike mumatunhu akadai se iyo michina mikuru, midzi, nharembozha, nezvimwe. Semuenzaniso, muchikamu chemakomputa, inova ndiyo inotinetsa izvozvi, hutongi hwacho hunenge hunotuka uye hwakakwana. Kana iwe ukatarisa pane iyo rondedzero yeane simba kwazvo supercomputer munyika, iyo June 2018 manhamba anoti 100% yeiyo 500 ine simba kwazvo kushandisa Linux.

Kana tikadzokera kuna 1998, kwaingova necomputer 1 yeLinux pakati peavo Mazana mashanu ane simba. Muna 1999 nhamba iyi yakakwira kusvika pa17, mumwezve mugore raitevera, makumi maviri nemasere muna 28, uye kubva ipapo vakura vachisvika kusvika 2000 muna 198, 2003 muna 376, 2006 yakasvika mazana mana nemakumi mana nenomwe uye kubva ipapo vakura zvishoma zvishoma kusvika pakuzosvika vangangoita 2007 kubva pa427 anga achingotamisa zvinhu kusvika asvika mazana mashanu pari zvino kubva pa490.

Naizvozvo, mumaseva aya, mainframes kana supercomputer ane kuchengetedzeka kuzere iwe uchaona iyo distros ye Red Hat uye SUSE, RHEL kana SLES yakaiswa pavari, kana mamwe ma distros akasiyana seDebian, CentOS, Kylin Linux, nezvimwe. Mukana wekusava neLinux, inogona kunge iine imwe UNIX yakaita seSolaris, AIX, UX, kana imwe BSD, asi izvo zvinoonekwa nekusavapo kwavo MacOS neWindows. Uye sekutaura kwandakaita muchikamu chakapfuura, kazhinji pasina nzvimbo yedesktop, sezvo iwe uchida kupa simba rese remakomputa aya kune chinangwa chaakagadzirirwa uye kwete kutambisa chikamu chayo munzvimbo dzakajeka izvo, nekuwedzera, ndezve kufarira kushoma kune avo vanozvibata. Chimwe chinhu chakasiyana macustomer makomputa kubva kunoshanda vashandisi kana vesaenzi, ayo anozove nemagariro enzvimbo ekuwongorora kweruzivo nenzira yakajeka uye yakajeka.

Nzira yekugadzira supermomputer yekugadzira?

Supercomputer ine Raspberry Pi mabhodhi

Iwe unogona kugadzira komputa yakagadzirwa nesimba, hongu. Muchokwadi munetiweki iwe unowana mamwe mapurojekiti senge makomputa makuru akaumbwa nemabhodhi mazhinji Raspberry Pi akabatana. Zviripachena kugona kwemamashini aya hakuzove kunobva kune imwe nyika, asi vanobvumira wedzera kugona kwemazhinji emabhodhi aya uye voita kuti vashande sekunge mushini mumwe chete. Kupfuura zvekushandisa chaiko, mhando iyi yeiyo DIY projekiti inoitwa kudzidzisa maitiro aungaita komputa huru asi nenzira yakachipa uye padiki padiki kuitira kuti chero munhu azviite pamba.

Imwe mhando yesumbu kana supercomputer inogona kugadzirwa pamba kana kudhura kupfuura michina mikuru inonzi Beowulf. Inogona kuitiswa nechero Unix-senge BSD, Linux kana Solaris uye kushandisa yakavhurwa sosi mapurojekiti kutora mukana weiyi yakafanana mubatanidzwa wemachini. Inonyatso kubudirira mukujoinha maPC akati wandei akabatanidzwa nemakadhi eEthernet uye switch dzekujoinha navo nekuvaita kuti vashande sehurongwa humwe chete.

Iine akati wandei Mahara maPC kana kuti iwe hausi kushandisa uye chero Linux distro seUbuntu, unogona kuvaka yako Beowulf. Ini ndinokukurudzira kuti uongorore mapurojekiti MOSIX / VhuraMOSIX o PelicanHPC. Navo iwe uchakwanisa kuita zvakataurwa kuitiswa. Nekudaro, kana ikabata, ini ndichaedza mune ramangwana kugadzira chidzidzo muLxA maitiro ekuchiita nenzira inoshanda uye nhanho nhanho.

Isa anoshanda system pakombuta

YAST2 mune mameseji modhi

Ichi chikamu chiri nyore chaizvo kutsanangura, nekuti iko kuiswa kuri zvinenge zvakafanana nechero komputa. Chete izvo isu zvatinofanirwa kuziva mupfungwa kuti isu tinofanirwa kugadzirisa zvimwe zvinhu senge iyo LVM kana RAID kumisikidzwa iyo inoshandiswa. Asi kazhinji, haisi kure zvakanyanya kubva pakuiswa kwemazuva ese. Chinhu chega chinotyisa ndechekuti pachinzvimbo cheprosesa imwechete uye mamwe maMAM module uye rimwe kana maviri madhiraivha akaomarara, pane mazana kana zviuru zvavo, kunyangwe kubva pamaonero emutungamiriri hapana mutsauko. Iyo system ichaona muchina seyakazara, chete kuti zviwanikwa zvatiinazvo zvinoshamisa.

Izvo iwe zvauchazoonawo mutsauko uchave kusavapo kweBIOS / UEFIsezvo masystem aya achiwanzoshandisa akasiyana EFI masystem kana mamwe chaiwo firmware kuitisa kune mamwe mapuratifomu akavakirwa paSPARC, SIMBA, nezvimwe. Semuenzaniso, Intel EFI inotsigirwa neIntel Itanium, Muchokwadi, kana iwe ukaverenga isu nguva dzose iwe zvakare uchaziva iro rakanakisa chirongwa che linuxboot. Asi izvi hazviunze dambudziko rakawandisa, ingozviziva iwe neichi chinongedzo uye hapana chimwezve, nekuwedzera, iyo nhamba yenguva idzo rudzi urwu rwemidziyo rwadzimwa / kuvhurwa kana kutangwazve rwunenge rwusiri.

Baba amai! Ndinogona here kuva nekomputa huru pamba?

Cloud kumashure kubva CLOUD

Zvisinei nemhando dzekuratidzira dzatinogona kuungana tichishandisa fomati yeBeowulf kana sumbu reRaspberry Pi mabhodhi kana mamwe marudzi eSBCs, ndine nhau dzakanaka kwauri. Unogona kushandisa simba rekomputa huru kubva kumba kwako, pasina kutenga kana kuisa chero zvivakwa. Kungobhadhara mubhadharo wemwedzi wega wega tenga sevhisi iyi iwe unogona kutarisira kune iro rese iro simba rinowanikwa kune chero chinangwa chaunoda kuishandisa. Uye ndizvozvo nekutenda kune akasiyana masevhisi emakore, akadai seAWS (Amazon Web Services), Google Cloud Computing, Microsoft Azure, IBM, nezvimwe.

Zviratidzo zvemamwe makore anozivikanwa mabasa

Uye zvakare, kuhaya iyi mhando yemasevhisi hazvireve chete kuchengetedza kana zvichienzaniswa nekuve neyako yakatsaurwa server, asi zvakare inobvumidza zvimwe zvakanaka. Semuenzaniso, zvinotibvumidza isu kukurumidza kuwedzera kugona kana saizi yebasa redu nekuhaya mwero wakakwira zvishoma, chimwe chinhu icho dai taive nacho panyama zvaizoreva kutenga michina mitsva. Uye hatifanirwe kubhadhara mari yekuwedzera yakadai sekushandisa magetsi kana vashandi vekugadzirisa, nekuti izvo zvinozochengetwa nevanyanzvi vemutengesi, zvinozotibvumidza kukupa zvivimbiso zvekuvimbika pamutengo wakanaka.

Kune akawanda masevhisi ayo kupa maVPS nemutengo wakanakandiko kuti, sevha chaiyo inoitwa pamushini chaiwo mune chaiyo server kana supercomputer. Iyi sevha inowana chikamu cheanogona emuchina chaiwo wekupa kwauri. Unogona kuwana mapuratifomu akanaka eVPS ne1 & 1, TMDHosting, HostGator, Dreamhost, nevamwe vazhinji… Zvakare, iwe unozogona kuona hunhu hweVPS pane iwo mawebhusaiti, pamwe nemitengo. Pakati pehunhu iwe uchaona iyo RAM, processor, inowanika kuchengetedza, bandwidth kana inobvumidzwa network traffic, nezvimwe. Uye zvakare, aya maVPS anogona kunge ari Linux kana Windows kunyanya, zvinoenderana nezvido zvako.

Kune rimwe divi, isu tine mamwe masevhisi epamberi senge iwo egore, anotibvumidza chibvumirano IaaS (Zvivakwa seSevhisi) kana zvivakwa sevhisi. Ndokunge, zvinotibvumidza kuve neyakanyanya komputa kana sevha sevhisi pasina kudikanwa kwekuve nayo panyama. Mune ino kesi isu tine Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, IBM SoftLayer, CloudSigma, Rackspace, VMWare vCloud Air, Amazon Web Services, Citrix Workspace Cloud, Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, nezvimwe.

Source:

Makomputa uye microprocessor dhizaini - Nyika yaBitman

Anoshanda masisitimu uye manejimendi - C2GL

Usakanganwa kusiya zvaunotaura nekusahadzika, mipiro, kana izvo zvawakawana mupiro wangu unozvininipisa ... Ndinovimba wakubatsira iwe kudzidza zvakawanda nezve ino nyika.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

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  1. Inotarisira data: AB Internet Networks 2008 SL
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   avocado ale akadaro

    Kana ndiine maviri kana matatu makomputa pamba, ndingaite sei kuti ndibatanidze simba rawo? upload chidzidzo

  2.   Maria Cecilia akadaro

    Yakanaka chinyorwa. Ndatenda nekuisa !!!

  3.   pacochote akadaro

    Chinyorwa chakanakisa, chine mufananidzo uye chiri nyore kunzwisisa. Maita basa. Ini ndinongova nekusahadzika kumwe chete, uye ndiwo maisirwo ehurongwa hwekushandisa, ndinonzwisisa kuti kernel inofanirwa kuverengerwa hardware, sezvo Hardware iri kure nemazinga anogona kushanda nemapakeji atinowanzo shandisa.

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