Mugadziri weAudacious akashora FSF

Ariadne Conill nguva pfupi yadarika akashora mutemo weFree Software Foundation pane proprietary firmware uye microcode, pamwe nemitemo ye "Remekedza Rusununguko Rwako" chirongwa chine chinangwa chekupa zvigadziriso zvinosangana nezvinodiwa zvekuvanzika kwevashandisi uye rusununguko.

Maererano naAriadne, nheyo yemitemo inorambidza vashandisi kune hardware yechinyakare, inokurudzira vagadziri vanotsvaga chitupa chekuwedzeredza hardware architecture, inoodza mwoyo kuvandudzwa kwemahara dzimwe nzira kune proprietary firmware, uye inoita kuti zviome kushandisa maitiro akanaka ekuchengetedza.

Dambudziko imhaka yekuti "Remekedza Rusununguko Rwako" chitupa inogona kuwanikwa chete nemudziyo apo ese anopihwa software anofanirwa kunge ari emahara, kusanganisira firmware inotakurwa neCPU huru.

Panguva imwecheteyo, firmware inoshandiswa mune mamwe embedded processors inogona kuramba yakavharwa, kana vasingabatanidzi zvigadziriso mushure mekunge mudziyo wawira mumaoko emutengi. Semuenzaniso, mudziyo unofanirwa kutumira neBIOS yemahara, asi iyo microcode yakatakurwa kubva kuchipset kuenda kuCPU, firmware kune I/O zvishandiso, uye yemukati FPGA yekutaurirana marongero inogona kuramba yakavanzika.

Mamiriro ezvinhu anogadzirwa umo kana iyo proprietary firmware yakaremerwa panguva yekutanga kweiyo sisitimu yekushandisa, mudziyo haugone kugamuchira chitupa kubva kuFree Software Foundation, asi kana iyo firmware yechinangwa chimwe chete ichitakurwa nechip yakasiyana, mudziyo unogona. kuve certified.

Iyi nzira inoonekwa seyakakanganisa, sezvo mune yekutanga kesi iyo firmware iri pachena, mushandisi anodzora kurodha kwayo, anoziva nezvazvo, anogona kuita yakazvimirira kuchengetedza odhiyo, uye kana yemahara analogue ichioneka, zviri nyore kutsiva. Muchiitiko chechipiri, iyo firmware ibhokisi dema, iro rinonetsa kuti rione uye kuvepo kwaro mushandisi angave asingazive, achinyepa achitenda kuti software yese iri pasi pekutonga kwake.

Semuenzaniso weakavanzika manipulations ane firmware, iyo Librem 5 smartphone inopihwa:

MuSoC iyo imwe processor inoshandiswa kutanga komputa (DDR4) uye kurodha mabhurobhu anodiwa. Mushure mekunge nhanho yekutanga yapera, kutonga kwakaendeswa kune iyo huru CPU uye yekubatsira processor yakadzimwa. Pakare, chirongwa chakadaro hachina kutyora mamiriro ekutora chitupa kubva kuFree Software Foundation, sezvo kernel neBIOS hazvina kurodha mabhinari mabhurobhu (pakupedzisira, kunyangwe aya matambudziko, Purism haina kukwanisa kuwana chitupa).

Chengetedzo uye kugadzikana kunetseka ivo vanogadzirawo kurudziro yeFSF yekushandisa iyo Linux Libre kernel uye Libreboot firmware, yakabviswa kubva kumabhurobhu akaiswa kune Hardware. Kutevera kurudziro idzi kunogona kutungamira kumhando dzakasiyana dzekutadza uye kuvanza yambiro nezve kudiwa kwekuisa firmware update yezvisina kugadzirisika tsikidzi uye zvingangoitika zvekuchengetedza nyaya (semuenzaniso, pasina firmware update, sisitimu icharamba iri panjodzi yekurwiswa kweMeltdown uye Specter).

Kudzima microcode zvigadziriso zvinoonekwa sezvisina musoro, kana iyo vhezheni yakamisikidzwa yeiyo microcode, umo kusadzivirirwa uye kusagadziriswa bugs, inoremerwa panguva yekutangisa chip.

Chimwe chichemo chinoreva kusakwanisa kutora chitupa Remekedza Rusununguko Rwako kune hardware yemazuva ano (iyo nyowani modhi yemalaptops akasimbiswa anotanga kubva 2009). Certification yemidziyo mitsva inokanganiswa nekuvapo kwetekinoroji seIntel ME.

Semuyenzaniso, iyo Framework laptop inouya neyakavhurika firmware uye inotarisa pane yakazara mushandisi kutonga, asi haifanirwe kukurudzirwa neFree Software Foundation nekuda kwekushandiswa kweIntel processors neIntel ME tekinoroji (kudzima Intel Management Engine mechanism). , iyo inogona kubvisa ese maIntel ME modules kubva kufirmware, isingaenderane nekutanga CPU kutanga, uye kudzima mutyairi mukuru weIntel ME uchishandisa sarudzo isina kunyorwa iyo semuenzaniso System76 nemakambani ePurism anoita pamalaptops avo) .

Chekupedzisira, kana iwe uchida kukwanisa kuziva zvakawanda nezvazvo, unogona kubvunza iwo ruzivo mu inotevera chinongedzo.


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  1. Inotarisira data: AB Internet Networks 2008 SL
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
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  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako