Mhoro LinuxBoot, Mhoro UEFI: iyo yemahara firmware imwe nzira inosvika

 

Linux Boot logo

Munyika yehunyanzvi pave paine "mhosva" zhinji, uye muchinyorwa chino ticha taura nezve maviri acho, kunyangwe paine mamwe mashoma. Imwe yeakakosha maballast munyika ye IBM PC yaive iyo BIOS, asi zvino tariro yakauya yekuti yakanga isina kudaro neEFI neBoot Yakachengeteka iyo misoro yakawanda yakapa kune yemahara software nharaunda uye avo vakazvipira mukugadzira masisitimu anoshanda kunze kweMicrosoft Windows, sezvo vakaonekwa vasina simba kukwanisa kuzvitanga pasi pekomputa neiyi system inoitwa neMicrosoft ...

Ticharangarirawo mubatanidzwa unozivikanwa seWintel, ndiko kuti, Windows (Microsoft) + Intel, iyo yakakwanisa kutora zvigadzirwa zvemakambani aya kutonga chikamu chose nechibhakera chesimbi, sezvavari kuita nanhasi. Kana iwe usingazive chinonzi Wintel, ndezve iwo makomputa ane Microsoft's inoshanda sisitimu uye imwe Intel microprocessor. Izvi hazvinei nechekuita nezwi MacIntel, ndiko kuti, mubatanidzwa weApple neIntel kwavakachinja iyo yekare PowerPC (AIM) yesangano idzva iri rezve tekinoroji ...

Wintel: zano rinotanga

Wintel logo

Mumakore makumi masere maive kugarisana nyonganiso maererano nemidziyo yemakomputa ine akasiyana maindasitiri zviyero (Amiga, Apple, Atari, Acorn, ...), izvo zvakamanikidza vagadziri vema software nevemidziyo kuti vagadzire nekugadzira matekinoroji ari nani nekukurumidza kutora vatengi vakapararira vaive panguva iyoyo. Asi hongu, iyo yanga isiri iyo nzira yekutonga chikamu nekuchiita monopolize, muchokwadi yaive nguva iyo pasina kambani yaitonga indasitiri.

Panzvimbo iyoyo, iyi maitiro ehunyanzvi aifanira kushandurwa kuita musiyano neWintel mubatanidzwa, apo Microsoft neIntel vakaedza kuzvimisikidza ivo kutonga chikamu nekushandisa kwavo mashandiro. Microsoft Windows uye Intel microprocessors zvichiteerana. Izvo zvakavatungamira kune ingangoita mhedzisiro yekutonga yavanayo parizvino, kunyange hazvo maererano nemakambani maviri aya waive chibereko chine zvibereko, chokwadi ndechekuti zvaingova zvakadaro kwavari. Sezvo izvo zvatiinazvo iye zvino zvine simba kwazvo Intel avo vanokwikwidza vange vachinyangarika zvishoma nezvishoma kunze kweiyo AMD (nekuti inokodzera Intel pachayo kudzivirira mamwe masimba ematare).

Kupesana neWintel, ngatishandise Amux (AMD + Unix) !!!

Zvichida vazhinji venyu mucharangarira mazita akaita seBMM, STMicroelectronics, NEC, makambani mazhinji kubva kuSoviet bloc, uye nevamwe vazhinji vakaita machipisi. x86 inoenderana kubva kuIntel. Vese vakamira kuzviita, kunyangwe makambani akange akazvipira chaizvo kwaakaita seIDT, Cyrix, VIA, Transmeta, nezvimwe, zvakanyangarika zvishoma nezvishoma. Pakati pavo vese, AMD neVIA chete ndivo vakasara, asi iyo yekupedzisira haimiriri chero chikamu chemusika ...

El IBM PC iyo yaimiririra diki diki yecomputer indasitiri yakakura nekuburitsa maschematics uye zvinyorwa pane zvakatemwa zvemidziyo yayo (yakavhurika dhizaini) kuti vechitatu vagadzire Hardware inoenderana nemidziyo iyi. Uye nekuuya kwemubatanidzwa weWintel, uku kuwedzera kwekuzivikanwa kwaive kwakakura, uye ikozvino hapachina chekuona chakatikomberedza kuziva izvo zvandiri kutaura nezvazvo ...

Izvi zvaive kukanganisa kwakananga pane indasitiri yesoftware, sezvo vese vanogadzira vakatanga kutaridzika zvakanaka papuratifomu iyo yakanga yagadzirwa, sezvo vari ivo vakakurumbira vakavimbisa kuva nevatengi vakawanda pazvinhu zvavo. Kunyora chirongwa cheimwe chikuva kwaireva kuitisa mitengo yekutengesa kushoma, uku uchinyora chirongwa cheIBM PC zvaireva budiriro yakavimbiswa. Ichi ndicho chimwe chezvinetso izvo Linux nemamwe mahara masisitimu akambove nazvo munguva yakapfuura kana zvasvika pakuenderana neWindows maererano nevatyairi uye software yemuno, sezvatakurukura zvakanaka pano.

Uye isu tinotevera iyo nyaya muchikamu chinotevera ...

BIOS: nyaya yekukakavara

Isu tatova neWintel kutonga neiyo IBM PC standard, asi chitsauko ichi munyaya chakabatanidzwa nemamwe makambani kuisa pekupedzisa nyaya iyi. Iwo aive makambani senge Mubayiro, Phoenix, AMI, Chips uye Technologiesetc. Uku kwaizove kutanga kwekuguma kweBM PC kuunza iyo PC nguva uye kubatanidzwa kwevagadziri vese vatinoziva nhasi muchikamu ichi. IBM yakarasikirwa nesimba uye nhaka yayo yaive yave kuunganidzwa nemamwe mafemu akaunganidza inoenderana PC michina (semuenzaniso: Compaq).

Microsoft yakanga yatokunda yakawanda mari yeMS-DOS yayo kana yeadhizenisi eDOS yakapihwa mamwe makambani, Intel ditto, sezvo yaigadzira machipisi akawanda kana kupihwa mvumo kubva kune avo vakagadzira machipisi anowirirana, kunze kwemakambani eSoviet bloc andataura pamusoro apa mune dzakawanda nguva dzaive dzisina marezenisi macones, akagadzirwa kuseri kweIntel kumusana. Asi zvakanaka, ngatipfupikisei uye titungamire nyaya yacho kwatinofarira, uye ndezve kumakambani aya andakaratidza zvakashinga mundima yapfuura ...

Izvo zvavaive vachigadzira zvaive zvisina kuwanda kana kushoma kupfuura machipisi BIOS (Yekutanga Kuburitsa Kuburitsa System), ndiko kuti, machipisi ane firmware inodiwa kuti aite boot maitiro paPC, kunyangwe ivo vagadziri vaive vakasiyana kwazvo, vachiwedzera modularity. Chirevo chinonzi BIOS chakanyorwa naGary Kildall uye chakaonekwa muna 1975 kune maCP / M anoshanda masystem ekushandisa zvaidikanwa muROM kuitira kuti Hardware ikwanise boot iyo OS. Izvi zvakagamuchirwa nehurongwa hweDOS.

MuDOS pane kudiwa kwekuisa a ROM ine BIOS firmware inonzi BIOS DOS iyo inokwanisa kuita yekutanga Hardware kumisikidza nekukanda dzimwe nzira kutanga system, uyezve kugona kuita bvunzo inonzi POST (Power-On-Self-Test) kuti uwane nzvimbo yekushandisa. yakaiswa uye yotanga, panguva iyoyo inopfuura kutonga kwairi. Uye izvo?

Zvakanaka, sezvo Microsoft yatotonga musika, Vagadziri vese vezvigadzirwa vakaitwa masisitimu aya ekutsigira masisitimu ekambani, nekuti kusaita kudaro kwaireva kushanda mune mashoma emusika mugove. Iyo BIOS haisiyo yakanakisa masisitimu uye ine masiringi mazhinji nematambudziko, asi izvo zvakakosha, kudiwa zvakare kugarwa nhaka neWindows uye kuenderera nemutoro uyu kunyangwe paine dzimwe nzira dziri nani senge EFI, Vhura Firmware yePowerPC , kana mamwe mapurojekiti achangoburwa seCoreBoot (ayo atakambotaura nezvazvo muLxA), nezvimwe. Uye saka, GNU / Linux, FreeBSD, kana chero imwe sisitimu inoshanda yaunoda kuisa paPC, yaizofanira kubata nemutoro uyu ...

UEFI: kutengesa kutsva kwakavanzwa setariro ...

UEFILogo

Uye zvino zvinouya panzvimbo UEFI (Yenyika Yose Yakawedzera Firmware), sisitimu yaiita kunge inounza tariro kutsiva BIOS uye kukunda yekare uye yechinyakare BIOS system. Chokwadi ndechekuti chakabudirira, asi hachina kuunza chiedza, asi rima, uye chikonzero chikuru zvakare zvakare Microsoft nedzvinyiriro yayo yekushandisa Yakachengeteka Boot mumakomputa kuitira kuti iwirirane neWindows 8 kana yemberi shanduro.

UEFI yaive yazvino hurongwa, asi isu tese tinoziva zvazvinoreva Yakachengeteka Boot yeiyo yemahara software nharaunda. Takanyora nzizi dzezvinyorwa pamusoro pazvo, uye kunyangwe nanhasi kuchine mamwe matambudziko mune mamwe madiki madhiri ekugona kuzviisa pakombuta. Mhinduro dzakapihwa dzave dzakasiyana kwazvo, vamwe vanoenda kuburikidza nekutenga makiyi kana masiginecha kubva kuMicrosoft pachayo (sezvo ichitadzisa kutanga kweasina kunyorwa masisitimu anoshanda, anofungidzirwa, zvikonzero zvekuchengetedza, uye iwo chete akasainwa priori ndeyaMicrosoft pachayo, tiri kuita bhizimusi rakatenderedza ...), saka zvese zvinotariswa kuitira kuti mubatsiri mukuru ave Microsoft ...

Ehe, ichokwadi kuti neEFI isu tinayo imwe yemazuva ano mushandisi interface uye kunyangwe ine magirafu ekusiya kumashure echinyakare DOS-senge interface yeBIOS, kumhanya mumakumi matatu nematanhatu-makumi matanhatu nematanhatu pachinzvimbo chegumi neshanu cheBIOS, tsigiro inopfuura zvikamu zvina zvakatsigirwa muBIOS uye iyo 32TB muhukuru hukuru hunogoneka kusvika 64 ZB, kutanga nekukurumidza, kuwanda kuchinjika uye modularity, uye kuzvimiririra kubva kune inoshandisa system pachayo.

LinuxBoot: mhinduro yekupedzisira

LinuxBoot schema

Sekuona kwedu, zvigamba chete zvakaiswa munhoroondo kuti pakupedzisira zvave kungori zvidobi zvekuenderera nematambudziko akajairwa enharaunda yemahara, kwete chete nekuda kwekukanganisa kweBIOS kana Secure Boot, asi nekuti yaive ichiri yakavharwa system. Asi ikozvino panoratidzika kuve nechiedza kumagumo kweteneru ne LinuxBoot, yakavhurika system inouya kumaseva uye ndinovimba kuve nayo pamakomputa epamba munguva pfupi.

LinuxBoot inoiswa seye vhura imwe nzira kune yechokwadi UEFI. Iyo firmware yakatangwa gore rapfuura 2017 pasi pemuraira weLinux Foundation, uye izvo zviri kuwedzera zvishoma nezvishoma mukuzivikanwa uye zvine rutsigiro rwakawanda kubva kumakambani ekugadzira michina.

LinuxBoot yave iri chirongwa cheRon Minnich, munyori weprojekiti inozivikanwa yeLinuxBIOS uye mutungamiri weGoogle's Coreboot. Iye zvino awana kubatana kwemakambani akaita seGoogle, Facebook, Hoirzon Computing Solutions, uye Two Sigma iyo ichabatana muLinuxBoot (inonzi zita NERF). Inoitirwa kuunza kuLinux server michina, ichibvumira vashandisi uye manejimendi kuti vave nekutonga kwakakura pamusoro pesystem yavo (gadzirisa yavo yavo yekutanga zvinyorwa, kukanganisa kwakaringana, kuvaka yavo nguva yekumhanya, kuita firmware kudzorera vachishandisa avo makiyi, nezvimwewo).

ari LinuxBoot zvakanakira pamusoro peEFI Ndizvo:

  • Maseva anogona bhuti nekukurumidza zvakanyanya, iine anenge masekondi makumi maviri chete achienzaniswa nemaminetsi akati wandei anotora neEFI pane aya marudzi emachina.
  • Zvimwe zvinoshanduka sezvandataura, sezvo chero chishandiso, faira system (FS) kana maprotocol anogona kushandiswa.
  • Zvichida zvakachengeteka, sezvo Linux FS masisitimu uye madhiraivha akasimba zvakanyanya kupfuura ayo anoshandiswa neEFI.
  • Zviri zvachose vakasununguka.

Unogona kuona kuwedzera kuri kuitwa kweLinuxBoot, semuenzaniso neprojekti Vhura Compute Project, chirongwa chakatangwa neFacebook kuti chigadzire zvine simba uye zvine hunyanzvi dhata nzvimbo. Uye haisiriyo yega, muQEMU emulator yatinoshandisa LinuxBoot yakawanda yakatsigirwawo, kunyangwe muIntel S2600wf, Dell R630, nezvimwe.

Usakanganwa kusiya yako inotsanangura, kusahadzika uye nemaonero ako nezve ino nyowani system ... Ndinovimba yakubatsira uye iwe unogona kuve nerakajeka zano nezve firmware uyezve netariro yakawanda nezverudzi urwu rwehurongwa.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa. Raida minda anozivikanwa ne *

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  1. Inotarisira data: AB Internet Networks 2008 SL
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Fernando akadaro

    Mhoro. Mandisiya makumbo akarembera. Chinyorwa chinonakidza uye chakanyanyisa. Makorokoto. Kana chiri chidzidzo ichi, tinotarisira kuti chinogona kuitwa mumakomputa ese epamba. Shuwiro yakanakisa.

  2.   Mak akadaro

    Chinyorwa chakanaka kwazvo.

  3.   Kuende (KUE) akadaro

    Yangu Asus haienderane, nhanho ...

  4.   Javare akadaro

    Tsitsi kuti parizvino zvinongonangidzirwa kumaseva
    Zviri pachena kuti Linux iri kufamba nekukurumidza kwazvo muchikamu icho nemutengo wekukanganwa nezve desktops.

  5.   Bernardo akadaro

    Chishamiso chinyorwa, ngativimbei kuti LinuxBoot ndiyo yekutanga shanduko yekomputa uye kuti inogona kuwanikwa padanho remakomputa ako.

  6.   incom2 akadaro

    Iyi imwe nzira kune yakashata UEFI inonzwika seni kwandiri, asi ngatiregei kuva vanyengeri. IBM yaive neiyo patent pane iyo yekutanga BIOS, uye haina kusvika vamwe vagadziri vakwanisa kuikopa kuburikidza nereversinjiniya uye hunyengeri hwepamutemo hwekutaura kuti chaive chinhu chakashanda zvakafanana asi chisina kodhi imwechete, iyo nguva ye iyo clone PC haina kutanga. Panguva iyoyo Microsoft yanga isiri izvo zvazviri nhasi, pakanga pasina mubatanidzwa weWintel nekuti Windows yaisavapo futi. Ichokwadi kuti MS-DOS yakamisikidzwa semutungamiri asina kupikiswa, asi ichokwadiwo kuti yaigara pamwe nemamwe masisitimu anoenderana, kubva kune mamwe makambani, akadai seDR-DOS kana kuti gare gare OS / 2 Warp seimwe nzira yeWindows 3.1.

    Kwandiri kuda kuenda ndekwekuti BIOS yakanga isina kana chinhu chaitadzisa kuiswa kwe "non-Microsoft" masystem anoshanda, chinhu choga chayainacho ndechekuti yainonoka uye isinganzwisisike. Uye kuti yakaonekwa pane chairo chikuva: x86, iyo Intel yaitora keke uye yaiziva kumira nekudzinga vadzivisi vayo (Cyrix, Transmeta, nezvimwe sekutaura kwavo). Mamwe mapuratifomu akangonyangarika nekuti x86 uye ecosystem iyo yaigadzira yakatenderedza yaive yakanyanya kufarirwa uye yakaguma kuvabvisa; Uye ARM yakanga isiri izvo zvazviri, kudzamara yarova chipikiri mumusoro nemusika wanhasi wefoni. Uye kana Linux yaisaziva kana kutadza kuzvimisa panguva iyoyo, zvaisave nekuti iyo BIOS yaidzivirira kuiswa kwayo.

    Muchokwadi, kune vashandisi vepamba, pakanga pasiri kusvika pakuuya kweWindows XP kuti Microsoft yakatanga kutenderera ichitenderedza zvakashata neiyo hard drive's boot chikamu (kwete iyo BIOS), ichityora multiboot maneja rutsigiro kusvika pazvinogona. Kupa huwandu hwakawanda hwemusoro kune avo vaida kuve neinopfuura imwe OS pamushini wavo.

    Iyo UEFI nebhuti yayo yakachengeteka, ehe hazvirambike kuti yakangobatsira Microsoft chete nekukuvadza vamwe vese. Asi zvinhu sezvazviri: iyo BIOS haina kudzivirira neimwe nzira, uye haina kukuvadza mamwe masisitimu anoshanda kubva pakuiswa paCone PC kubva pamurwi, uye Linux haina kutanga kukuvadza kuiswa kweimba kudzamara pakuonekwa kweWindows-95 kumashure muna 1996, mune mamwe mazwi, yakanga iine makore gumi ane mikana imwechete seMS-DOS kana DR-DOS kana OS / 2; uye kunyangwe kupfuura Windows XP, dambudziko rakanga risiri neBIOS kana neIntel kana neiyo x86 chikuva, asi neMicrosoft nemaitiro ayo akashata chete.

  7.   Ikofi iyo inobatsira akadaro

    Makorokoto pachinyorwa ichi, rakanaka kwazvo info. Ichazopedzisira yasvika semazuva ese kuDesktop.

  8.   Inukaze akadaro

    Zvakanaka kwazvo ndinovimba zuva raunogona kutenga timu nyowani. inouya neLinuxBoot uye kwete neBIOS kana UEFI uye zvakanyanya kushomeka SecureBoot iyo inofanira kunzi "MicrosoftBoot" xD

  9.   elroyer26 akadaro

    Yakanaka chinyorwa, inonakidza kwazvo uye pamusoro pezvese ruzivo runokurudzira, Linux inoramba ichiita nhanho huru.

  10.   Sudo akadaro

    Linux Inokunda

  11.   Alberto akadaro

    UEFI neASUS, musoro wakasimba paunenge uchida kuisa Ubuntu ... zvakanditorera maawa akawanda