Linux Glossary: ​​tsananguro dzinokubatsira iwe kunzwisisa zviri nani nyika ino

 

Linux Glossary

Negore rega rega idzva rinouya, kana mazuva asati aita sazvino, zvinyorwa zvinowanzoverengwa izvo zvinovimbisa kuti rino richava gore reLinux. Ndanga ndichiiverenga kweanopfuura makore gumi, asi gore remasisitimu akafanana neatinokurukura mune ino blog harisati rauya. Muchikamu, zvine musoro: Windows iri kwese kwese, uye zvakanyanya kupomera kuti yakaiswa nekusarudzika pane chero komputa. Nechikonzero ichi, vazhinji venyu havazive kuti mamwe mazwi atinoshandisa munyika ino anorevei, uye ndicho chikonzero isu tafunga kuburitsa chinyorwa ichi se Linux glossary.

Zvinenge zvine chokwadi kuti mune ramangwana tichanyora zvimwe zvinyorwa zvinotsanangura zvakadzama izvo zvinotaurwa mune ino Linux glossary, asi chatinoda kuita muchinyorwa chino ndechekuti, Linux glossary, iyo isiri chinhu kunze kwe chinyorwa chemazwi netsanangudzo inotarisirwa kuve yakajeka, pfupi uye pfupi. Tichaaisa muhurongwa hwearufabheti, uye zvirokwazvo tichaigadzirisa nedzimwe tsananguro mune ramangwana, tingave tine chimwe chinhu chekuwedzera kana vaverengi vedu vanozvikurudzira.

Linux Glossary: ​​Tsanangudzo Munhu wese Anofanira Kuziva

  • ALSA: acronym ye Yepamberi Linux Inzwi Architecture uye isoftware chimiro uye chikamu cheLinux kernel inopa application programming interface (API) yemadhiraivha edhizha kadhi.
  • AppImage: fomati yekugovera "inotakurika" software paLinux pasina kuve mushandisi wepamusoro kuisa iyo application, chimwe chinhu icho, muchokwadi, hachiite. Iwo mapakeji umo main software uye zvinovimbika zvinosanganisirwa mune imwechete executable. Nyaya inoenderana.
  • Bash: UNIX-seganda uye mutauro wekuraira
  • CLI: Acronym ye "Command Line Interface". Inoshandiswa, semuenzaniso, kana chirongwa chichishanda mune terminal uye chimiro chayo hachina graphical. Muenzaniso.
  • Raira: zvinyorwa zvinonyorwa muterminal, zvinyorwa uye zvimwe zvikamu zvinokonzeresa zviito. Tinogonawo kuvadaidza se "kurongeka."
  • kugovera: Shoko rakapfupikiswa rekuti "kugovera" iro rinonyatso tsanangura "mudzi" kana "source" sisitimu yekushandisa yakavakirwa paLinux, senge Debian, Ubuntu kana Red Hat. Kubva kwavari kunouya "zvinonhuhwira" kana "zvinonhuhwira": Ubuntu kugovera, Kubuntu kunaka. Kunyangwe maererano nevamwe vashandisi kana imwe tsananguro, iyo inoshanda sisitimu yaizove hwaro uye izvo zvinobuda kubva kwavari zvaizove kugovera. Somuenzaniso: Arch Linux: operating system; Manjaro, distro.
  • Graphical nharaunda-Inozivikanwawo se "desktop nharaunda" mune dzimwe nyika, iboka rezvikamu zvinopa mushandisi zvinhu zvakaita sezvidhori, maturusi, mapikicha, uye majeti. Kutenda kune graphical nharaunda isu tinogona kushandisa Linux zvakajeka negonzo uye keyboard sezvatinoita muWindows uye macOS. Pakati peanonyanya kuzivikanwa tine GNOME, Plasma kana XFCE.
  • Flatpak: Pakeji manejimendi yekushandisa iyo software inogovaniswa, yakaiswa uye inotungamirwa iyo inosanganisira, mupakeji imwe chete, iyo huru software, zvinoenderana, nguva yekumhanya uye zvese zvinodiwa kuti ishande pane chero Linux-based system ine kana yakawedzerwa kwairi pakati. Iwo mapakeji epasirese uye sandbox (yakasarudzika). Iyo inonyanya kushandiswa repository ndeye Flathub.
  • GNU: acronym ye "GNU's Not Unix", uye mukuru aitarisira aiva Richard Stallman kumashure kwe80s. Linux-based operating systems ndeyechokwadi GNU / Linux, kunyange mumidhiya yose tinopfupisa (yakaipa) uye tichitaura kwavari zvakananga se "Linux" .
  • GRUB: GNU GRAnd Unified Boot loader o GRUB chirongwa chinoita kuti mushandisi asarudze kuti ndeipi sisitimu yekushandisa kana kernel yekurodha kana system bhutsu. Inobvumirawo mushandisi kupfuudza nharo kune kernel. Iwe unogona kutaura kuti ndiyo yekutanga chirongwa chinoshandiswa muLinux.
  • GUI: acronym ye "Graphical User Interface", inova graphical mushandisi interface inotitendera kuti tibatane nesoftware kuburikidza nemahwindo, cheki mabhokisi, mabhatani, nezvimwe. Zvakafanana nehwindo ratinoona kana tichishandisa software. Pasina GUI, chatingave nacho isoftware mu "CLI", yatakatsanangura pamusoro.
  • Jack: acronym ye "JACK Audio Connection Kit", inova sevha inonzwika (uye chimwe chinhu) inobvumira odhiyo kunzwika kana zvikumbiro zvakumbira. Haisi iyo yega iripo muLinux.
  • Kernel: musimboti. Mwoyo. Kana tichitaura nezve "Linux" inoshanda sisitimu (yakanyatso taurwa ichave "GNU / Linux"), zvatiri kutaura ndezvekuti inoshandisa iyo Linux kernel, inova yekutanga layer yesoftware inoshandiswa mumasitimu aya uye kuti ine, pamusoro pezvese, madhiraivha kuitira kuti ishande mune chero hardware michina. Muchokwadi, icho chaive chinangwa chaLinus Torvalds paakachitanga sechirongwa chebasa chaanoenderera mberi nekushanda pachiri.
  • LTS: Acronym ye "Long Term Support". Inoshandiswa kuratidza kuti sisitimu yekushandisa kana chirongwa chichatsigirwa kwenguva yakareba, iko kunonyanya kuoneka muLTS shanduro dzeUbuntu dzinobuda makore maviri ega ega uye dzinotsigirwa 5.
  • live-session: iwo "masesheni mhenyu" ndeaya aripo chero isu tisingadzime kana kutangazve komputa. Kuchinja kwose kwatakaita kuchaparadzwa panguva iyoyo. Ivo vanowanzo shandiswa pa USB kuisa sisitimu yekushandisa kana sechishandiso chekudzoreredza.
  • PipeWire: iseva yekugadzirisa odhiyo uye vhidhiyo hova uye hardware muLinux. Inobata multimedia routing uye pombi kugadzirisa. Panguva yekunyora chinyorwa ichi, muna Zvita 2021, ichiri kuvandudzwa, asi zvinotarisirwa kuti, pamwe chete neWayland, ichavandudza zvakanyanya zvese zvine chekuita nemufananidzo uye ruzha, uye zvakare kuvandudza kuenderana pakati pemaseva akasiyana eaudio. uye vhidhiyo..
  • kufamba kweropa-Netiweki-inokwanisa odhiyo server inoshandiswa zvakanyanya paLinux, asiwo paBSD, macOS, kana Solaris masisitimu.
  • Release Candidate- Label kana mazwi anoshandiswa kureva kune yepamberi vhezheni yesoftware iri kugadzirwa. Semuenzaniso, kune makambani anodaidza software yavo kuti "Release Candidate" vhiki kana maviri shanduro yakagadzikana isati yaburitswa. Kana iri kernel (Linux), inoshandiswa kwemwedzi miviri, asi nekuti izvo zvavanoita ndezvekuchinja pamusoro peiyo yakagadzikana vhezheni.
  • Kutenderera Kuburitswa-Kugadziridzwa kweSoftware uye modhi yekuendesa iyo inosvika nekukurumidza kana yave kuwanikwa, uye masisitimu anoshanda anoishandisa anoiswa kamwe chete uye anogashira zvigadziriso zvehupenyu. MuLinux, Arch Linux ndizvo, uye zvaidavirwa izvozvo Windows 10 vaizova pavakavimbisa kuti ichave yazvino vhezheni yeMicrosoft's system (ikozvino yava kuzivikanwa kuti ichavepo Windows 11). Kunyangwe, zvakanaka, Windows yakazadzisa chete chikamu chekuvandudza kwehupenyu, uye kwete kunyange izvo.
  • Shell: Linux command kana command muturikiri.
  • su: rairo rine zvarinoreva "mutsivi wemushandisi", uye rinonyanya kushandiswa kuchinja kubva kune mumwe mushandisi kuenda kune mumwe. Inoita izvi nekutanga dhizaini rekupinda mune yazvino dhairekitori uye nharaunda (su) kana nekuchinjira zvachose kune yakatarwa mushandisi marongero (su -).
  • sudo: kuraira kukumbira maropafadzo akakwirira kana epamusoro emushandisi. Inowanzoiswa pamberi pemimwe mirairo kuti ikwanise kuita zvimwe zviito, sekuisa software kana kufambisa mafaera kune akachengetedzwa madhairekitori. Chinyorwa nezve sudo uye su.
  • Snap: mutariri wepakiti uye budiriro yakagadziridzwa neCanonical uye iyo inokwikwidza iyo Flatpak yekuve yepasirese mapakeji anosanganisira software uye zvinoenderana, nguva dzekumhanya uye zvimwe mune imwechete package. Iwo zvakare sandbox. Nyaya inoenderana.
  • Sway: hwindi maneja anotsiva i3 iyo inowanikwa paLinux-based operating systems. Yakagadzirirwa kushanda muWayland, uye haina desktop yekushandisa. Iwo mahwindo anovhurika mune yakazara skrini, ine miganho inogadziriswa, iyo nyowani windows inokamura skrini otomatiki uye unogona kushandura zviri nyore kubva kune imwe "desktop" kuenda kune imwe nekhibhodi mapfupi. Muchokwadi, mushandisi ane ruzivo anogona kuzviita zvese nekhibhodi. Sezvo isina zvinhu zvakawanda zveyakajairwa graphical nharaunda, yakareruka.
  • Symlink: "symbolic" kana "soft" links, izvo mune mamwe masisitimu anozivikanwa se "mapfupi". Inogona kushandiswa, semuenzaniso, kuwana faira kana folda kubva kune imwe nzira. Related link.
  • tarball: software yakawanda inoparadzirwa yakamanikidzwa. Chimiro chinoshandiswa nevakawanda cheichi iTAR, kubva kuTape Archive, uye tarball kana tarfile izita rakapihwa boka kana faira rakaumbwa nemamwe mafaera akabatanidzwa pamwechete uchishandisa murairo weTAR kana graphical interface (GUI) compression software. Anogona kuwanikwa aine .tar kana .tar.gz edzedzero, uye software inogona kuiswa zvakananga kubva kutarball.
  • chiteshi: peripheral inodyidzana nemunhu, ine zvinobuda nekupinza, sikirini uye keyboard. Chaizvoizvo, chatinoshandisa muLinux kana isu tiri pane system ine graphical interface ndeye "terminal emulator".
  • Tuxedo: Linux mascot. Ipenguin uye inoonekwa musoftware seTux Guitar, Tux Paint kana Tux Kart. Nyaya inoenderana.
  • Wayland: ratidza protocol ine mamwe maseru ekuchengetedza. Imwe neimwe app inoonekwa semutengi uye iyo hardware iseva, uye Wayland ingave iri bhiriji rinoita kuti mufananidzo ugoneke. Nhasi, vagadziri vazhinji vari kutarisa kuWayland nekuti ndiyo yakanakisa sarudzo uye ramangwana riri mairi.
  • WINE: acronym yeWaini Haisi Emulator, asi muchokwadi zvinoita sekunge ndizvo. Isoftware ine zvese zvaunoda kuti umhanye Windows application paLinux, asiwo paMacOS uye kunyange Android. Mukuvandudza nguva dzose nekuvandudza nekufamba kwenguva, inogona kuiswa, semuenzaniso, Guitar Pro paLinux.
  • X11: X Window (inozivikanwawo se X11, kana kuti X chete) ndeye mutengi / sevha hwindo system ye bitmap kuratidza. Inoitwa pane akawanda UNIX-senge masisitimu anoshanda uye akaiswa kune mamwe akawanda masisitimu.

Pane chimwe chinhu chekuwedzera?

Ichi chinyorwa nezve Linux glossary ichavandudza nekufamba kwenguva kuisa tsanangudzo dzakawanda uye dzakawanda. Pakutanga takawedzera izvi nekuti tinoziva kuti vazhinji venyu mune kusahadzika pamusoro pazvo, se "tarball". Chinangwa chedu ndechekukubatsira kuti unzwisise, uye tinovimba kuti mushure mekuverenga iyi Linux glossary zvichave nyore kuverenga zvimwe zvinyorwa pablog.


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  1.   Noel akadaro

    Chimwe chinhu chinondivhiringa sudo vs su, uye yakaropafadzwa grub yakakuvadzwa