Kuumbwa: iwo makumi matatu nematatu akanakisa manyorerwo eLinux

tux super saiyan linux

Chinyorwa ichi chakanangana vese avo vanga vachi "tinkering" neLinux kwechinguva, asi vachiri nekusahadzika kana matambudziko nepenguin chikuva, pamwe neavo vatsva kudzidza zvinhu zvitsva zvekuita muGNU / Linux yavo. kugovera. Kwavari ndakanyora chinzvimbo ichi che akanakisa manomano uye inonyanya kubatsira.

Sezvaunoziva, * nix masisitimu anoshanda anoita zvakanyanya kushandisa koni rairoKunyangwe ano emazuva ano graphical maficha akabuda uye ari kuita zvirinani uye nekupararira, aya masisitimu ane kutsamira kukuru pane koni yekuita kwavo uye simba. Izvo zvakanaka kuti nhaka iyi kubva kare haina kurasikirwa, nekuti ndizvo chaizvo zvinoderedza mamwe masisitimu.

Iyi ndiyo mamiriro eApple Mac OS X, umo iyo GUI yakazvipira zvakanyanya uye zvishandiso ku chinouraya. Izvi zvave kureva kuti OS X haisi yakadaro inoshandiswa uye ine simba yekushandisa system kana zvasvika pakuita mamwe mabasa (semuenzaniso: yekupentesa, senge Windows, iyo kunyangwe paine huwandu hwezvishandiso zviripo, havasi vanokurumidza chaizvo uye vane simba…).

Zvakanaka, sekuita mabasa mu graphic mode kuri nyore, isu ticha tarisa kunyanya pamatanho ekunyaradza uye nekupa akateedzana e consejos kuita anoshanda uye ezuva nezuva mabasa kubva kunyaradzo. Kunyangwe paine zvakare pachave nemamwe mazano anoshanda kune mamwe graphic maturusi.

Gadzirira chiitiko chako ne bash shell:

Iyo Linux console par kugona, Bash, zvinoshamisa kushanda pamwe, kunyangwe vazhinji vachiona zvichinetesa kushanda mumavara modhi. Kuti uinzwisise zvirinani uye ushande zviri nyore, isu tinokudzidzisa aya madhiri ekuchaira ayo achaita kuti hupenyu hwako uye basa riite nyore. Linux mirairo zvakakosha kuti uwane zvakanakisa kubva kune yako terminal:

  • Raira kugadzirisa: kuti iyo koni yacho izadzise zita remutemo kana faira / dhairekitori zita nekungonyora mavara ekutanga, unogona kushandisa kiyi yeTab. Zviri nyore, nyora mavara ekutanga emurairo kana kero uye wobva wadzvanya Tab kuti izadzise. Kana paine mazita akati wandei anoenderana nemavara akanyorwa, unogona kuramba uchimanikidza Tab kuratidza zvimwe zvingaitika kana kungoramba uchinyora mamwe mavara.
  • Raira nhoroondo: Kana iwe uchikahadzika syntax yemirairo yawakashandisa nguva pfupi yadarika kana uchingoda kuitora kuti usazvinyora zvakare, unogona kushandisa rairo nhoroondo iyo Bhash inoponesa (mu ~ / .bash_history). Kuti uite izvi iwe unofanirwa kunyora "nhoroondo" pasina makotesheni uye pinda ENTER. Imwe sarudzo yekushandisa kunaka kweyakaitika ndeye kushandisa kumusoro uye pasi museve makiyi "kufamba" kuburikidza nemirairo nhoroondo uye kuita kuti mirairo yakachengetwa ioneke pamberi pechino chimbichimbi. Iwe unogona zvakare kushandisa kiyi musanganiswa Ctrl + P uye Ctrl + N kuita basa rimwe chete iri.
  • Tsvaga mirairo yatove kushandiswa: Kutenda kune nhoroondo yatakadzidza mundima yapfuura, unogona kutsvaga mirairo yakashandiswa kare. Ingoshandisa Ctrl + R pakutsvaga kumashure kana Ctrl + S pakutsvaga kumberi. Iyi nzira mubatanidzwa wenhoroondo yekuraira uye nhoroondo yekupedzisa, saka tinofanirwa kunyora mavara ekutanga emurairo watinoda kutora.
  • Delete nhoroondo: Kana isu tichida kudzima iyo nhoroondo kuitira kuti mumwe mushandisi muchikwata chedu asakwanise kuwana mirairo yatakashandisa kana kungodzima iyo faira yaive yatove izere nemirairo nekuda kwekushandisa kwakanyanya kweiyo terminal, unogona kushandisa "nhoroondo -c "isina makotesheni uye nhoroondo yedu inojekeswa (kune mushandisi wazvino). Pane kudaro, kana iwe uchida kudzima iyo nhoroondo zvachose, unogona kushandisa:
cat /dev/null > ~/.bash_history
  • Chinja kana kugadzirisa mitsara yakatonyorwa kare: Kana isu takatsvaga mutsara wenhoroondo kana kushandisa autocomplete, asi isu tinoda kugadzirisa mutsetse wekushandisa kumwe kana syntax yacho haina kukwana, tinogona kushandisa Ctrl + A uye Ctrl + E kufambisa iyo inotora kutanga kwekutanga kwetambo. kana magumo zvichiteerana. Kana isu tichida kusvetuka hunhu nehunhu munzira imwe kana imwe, tinogona kushandisa mabhatani ekuruboshwe kana kurudyi museve. Kune rimwe divi, kana isu tichida kusvetuka kubva kushoko kuenda kuzwi pane chimiro kune hunhu, tinogona kushandisa Ctrl + Arrow (kuruboshwe kana kurudyi) pane yedu keyboard. Kana tangosvika pane imwe nhanho, hunhu huri pasi pechikara hunogona kudzimwa nekiyi Del kiyi kana iri kuruboshwe nekiyi Backspace. Kana isu tichida kudzima mavara kubva kune iyo cursor kusvika kumagumo kwetambo, shandisa Ctrl + K wobva wadzvanya Backspace. Kuchenesa kubva kukorori kusvika pakutanga kwetambo, shandisa Ctrl + X uyezve Backspace.
  • Chinja mabhii madiki kuve madiki kana zvinopesana: Unogona kuchinja mavara madiki kuita mabara makuru kana zvinopesana nekuisa iyo cursor kwatinoda uye nekutsikirira Esc ichiteverwa naC kana L.
  • Kopa uye unama zvinyorwa pamutsetse wekuraira: Kunze kwebhatani repakona chaipo, unogona kushandisa kiyi yemubatanidzwa Ctrl + Shift + C kuteedzera uye Ctrl + Shift + V kunama. Nenzira, Shift ndiyo kiyi yekuchinja, asi iyo iri pasi pe "Caps Lock" kiyi, kune avo vasingazive. Kunyangwe ichiratidzika kunge yakapusa, dzimwe nguva hatina mbeva yekuita uye zvinonakidza kuziva aya mapfupi ekhibhodi. Semuenzaniso, izvi zvakaitika kwandiri pane dzimwe nguva neRaspbian yeRaspberry Pi, umo ini ndakanga ndisina mbeva yekubatanidza kubhodhi.
  • Chinyorwa: zvinyorwa zvinoshanda kwazvo kugadzirisa mashandiro ezuva nezuva, fungidzira iwe uchida kuona iyo nhoroondo, bvisa iyo yazvino skrini wozodzima nhoroondo zvachose. Izvi zvinoda akateedzana emirairo uye kana iri basa raunoita zuva nezuva, unogona kufarira kugadzira script inozviita zvese kamwechete uye otomatiki uye iwe unofanirwa kungoimhanyisa kuti uite iro basa. Kuti tigadzire iyo, isu tinonyora inotevera rugwaro nemavara edhita uye kuichengeta pamwe neyekuwedzera .sh uye nekuipa mvumo yekuita. Fungidzira iyo muenzaniso yataisa, iwo mavara angave
 #!/bin/bash
history
clear
cat /dev/null > ~/.bash_history
echo "El historial se ha borrado. Gracias.”
  • Kuti uzviite, fungidzira kuti takatumidza zita erasure.sh, nekuti kubva kudhairekitori kwarinowanikwa, tinonyora zvinotevera uye tinya ENTER (ichitiponesa kunyora nhoroondo yekuraira kuratidza nhoroondo, zvakajeka kudzima skrini nekatsi mutsara kudzima iyo faira iyo inochengetedza nhoroondo, kunyangwe ichi chinyorwa chisinganzwisise, asi muenzaniso uri nyore kuti unzwisise):
 ./borrado.sh

Anoshanda manomano uye mirairo yekumanikidza yedu terminal:

Kana tangoziva kutora mukana kubva kune zvakanaka izvo bash zvinotipa kuti tiwane chiitiko chiri nani, tinogona kutanga kushandisa zvishandiso zvinogona kushandiswa kuburikidza nazvo:

  • Ziva mudhairekitori zvandiri:
pwd
  • Chinja kune rimwe dhairekitori:
cd /ruta/del/nuevo/directorio/o/fichero
  • Dzokera kudhairekitori rapfuura:
cd ..
  • Enda wakananga kune rako dhairekitori kana iyo yemumwe mushandisi iwe yaunodoma:
cd ~nombre_usuario
  • Enda kudhairekitori remidzi:
cd /
  • Gadzira dhairekitori:
mkdir nombre_directorio
  • Delete madhairekitori kana mafaera:
rmdir nombre_directorio
rm nombre_fichero
  • Nyora zvirimo mune dhairekitori:
 ls 
  • Wona zvinyorwa zvakavanzika mudhairekitori:
ls -a
  • Tsvaga faira mune yese system.
 find / -name nombre_fichero
  • Ongorora nzvimbo inoshandiswa nedhairekitori:
 du -sh /directorio
  • Ita backup yedhairekitori mune imwe: fungidzira iwe uchida kugadzira kopi yekuchengetedza ye / dhairekitori repamba uye chengeta mu / temp uye kuti iyo backup inonzi copy1:
 dump -0aj -f /tmp/copia1.bak /home
  • Gadzira iyo ISO mufananidzo yeiyo inokurumidza uye yakapusa diski:
 mkisofs /dev/cdrom > nombre_imagen.iso
  • Yakave yako system kukiya kunze nekuda kwechirongwa mu graphic mode? Unogona kumanikidza kuvhara ichi chakundikana chirongwa kuti udzokere kune zvakajairwa ne xkill Iwe unongofanirwa kunyora zvinotevera uye iwe uchaona kuti iyo mbeva yekasha yakashanduka kuita muchinjikwa, iine iyo inobata hwindo raunoda kumanikidza kuvhara uye ndizvozvo:
 xkill
  • Unoda here dzosera mutemo wekupedzisira akabatana? Type:
 !! 
  • Pinda rairo pasina iyo kuchengetedzwa kunhoroondol: iwe unongofanirwa kuisa nzvimbo pamberi pemirairo iwe yaunoda kusarudzira kubva munhoroondo nhoroondo. Semuenzaniso, kana iwe uchida kuti ls isanyorwe munhoroondo ya bash, nyora:
 ls 
  • Wana ruzivon nezve mashandisiro aungaita chero kuraira:
 man nombre_comando
  • Ona zvinhu zvehurdware zveedu system:
 dmidecode -q
  • Ratidza iyo chwokugadzira hunhu hwehadhi disk:
 sudo hdparm -i /dev/sda
  • Ratidza yakadzama CPU ruzivo:
 cat /proc/cpuinfo
  • Iwe unoda here inokurumidza karenda? Kuti uwane karenda yegore rakapihwa, ingo nyora zvinotevera (semuenzaniso: kuratidza imwe yegore rino):
 cal 2015
  • Kana kana iwe uchida icho kubva mwedzi wakatarwa, semuenzaniso Gumiguru:
 cal 10 2015
  • Bvisa pasi iyo system panguva yakatarwa. Fungidzira kuti urikudhaunirodha chimwe chinhu chinotora nguva yakareba uye iwe uchida kubuda mumba Saka kuti michina haisi kushandisa magetsi kudzamara wadzoka uye usingasiyi kuburitswa nepakati, unogona kuronga kudzima pane imwe nguva nemurairo uyu. Semuenzaniso, fungidzira iwe uchida kudzima pa08: 50:
 shutdown -h 08:50
  • Ziva yedu IP: Kune izvi tinogona kushandisa iyo ifconfig yekuraira uye kutsvaga iyo "inet addr:" munda unozoona IP yedu. Zviri nyore, asi izvi zvinotipa yedu yemukati IP. Kana izvo zvatinoda iri yekunze kana yeruzhinji IP:
 curl ifconfig.me/ip
  • Chenesa chidzitiro cheiyo terminall kwete kuti ndikukurire nezvakawanda zvinyorwa uye kuve nenzvimbo yakachena. Izvo zvinobatsira mushure mekuita mirairo yakawanda kana nezvimwe zvishandiso izvo zvinodzosera kuwanda kwemashoko ezvinyorwa zvichidonhedza iyo yekupedzisira skrini. Kana iwe usisiri kuida, unogona kusiya iyo shell seyatsva neCtrl + L kana kana uchida.
 clear
  • Kutaurirana mune chaiwo michina: Kana iwe ukashandisa VirtualBOX kana VMWare kugadzirisa imwe sisitimu yekushandisa, ingave iri Linux kana zvakasiyana, unogona kunge uchifunga kuti ungabatanidza sei muchina wemuchina (muenzi) uye iwo chaiwo muchina (unogashira) padanho reneti kana kunyangwe nzira yekubatanidza maviri chaiwo michina kune mumwe nemumwe. Zvakanaka, iwe unongofanirwa kuwana maratidziro emuchina wemuchina uye sarudza iyo NAT kumisikidza kuti ugadzire chinongedzo chakananga pakati pemachina maviri chaiwo kana Bridge kuti utaure muchina chaiwo neicho chaicho. Muchiitiko chekutanga, iwe haufanire kuita chero chinhu, asi kana ukasarudza iyo Bridge mode, uchafanirwa kugadzirisa iyo IP yemuenzi kuitira kuti ive iri yakafanana nhanho seye inomiririra inomiririra. Semuenzaniso, fungidzira kuti wako wepanyama muchina une IP (unogona kutarisa ne ifconfig) 192.168.1.3 uye kuti muchina chaiwo une imwe Linux distro. Zvakanaka, iwe unofanirwa kuvhura iyo terminal yeiyo chaiyo muchina uye nyora "ifconfig eth0 new_IP" pasina makotesheni uye kutsiva new_IP neIP iwe yaunoda (rangarira zvakare kuti kana iwe uri kushandisa imwe network netiweki kunze kweeth0, iwe unofanirwa kuzvitaura). Iyi IP nyowani inofanirwa kunge iri muchikamu chimwechete che network sezvakaita yemuchina wepanyama, saka inofanirwa kutaridzika senge 192.168.1.X, iko X iri chero nhamba kubva pa0 kusvika 255. Semuenzaniso, izvi zvinoshanda mune ino kesi:
 ifconfig eth0 192.168.1.10
  • Kunyarara kunogumbura mhosho mameseji: Ini ndinopa zano kutanga kugadzirisa kana kuongorora dambudziko uye kuona kuti hachisi chinhu chakakomba. Asi dzimwe nguva, dzimwe nguva dzinokanganisa nguva kana dzisingakuvadzi dzinogadzira faira rekukanganisa rinozoita kuti meseji inogumbura iite senge inotinyevera nezvedambudziko uye kukumbira kumhan'ara dambudziko racho kuti rigadziriswe. Kana iwe uchida kudzivirira iwo unoshungurudza meseji we "Dambudziko raonekwa ..." kana zvakafanana, unogona kunyora zvinotevera:
 sudo rm /var/crash/*
  • Hard dhiraivha pane inokwana muganho (yemahara kumusoro nzvimbo): kusunungura nzvimbo iwe yaunogona kushandisa, semuenzaniso, kuteedzana kunotevera kwemirairo (izvi zvinodzima mafaera asina basa anotora nzvimbo pasina kunyatsojeka)
 sudo apt-get autoclean sudo apt-get celan sudo apt-get autoremove
  • Tarisa nzvimbo inowanika uye yakashandiswa yedhisiki rakaomarara: Kuti tiite izvi, tinogona kushandisa iri nyore kuraira iyo inotipa dhata pane yakasununguka uye yakashandiswa nzvimbo yezvazvino zvikamu, kusanganisira iyo muzana:
 df -H
  • Tsvaga raibhurari chirongwa chinoshandisa: Semuenzaniso, fungidzira iwe uchida kuona maraibhurari ayo iyo "ls" chirongwa chinoenderana ne:
 ldd /bin/ls
  • Tsvaga uye bvisa mafaera ese ane imwe yekuwedzera: fungidzira iwe uchida kudzima yese mifananidzo ine .gif yekuwedzera kubva kune yako system (chero zita ravo). Type:
 find -name *.gif | xargs rm -rf
  • Ziva kuti ndeapi madoko atakavhura: Kuti tizive kuti ndeapi madoko atakavhura tinogona kushandisa mirairo miviri, imwe yeTCP uye imwe yeDP:
 nmap -sS -O
nmap -sU -O
  • Ziva iro ganda ratiri kushandisa: sekuziva kwako kune akati wandei, kunyangwe bash iri yakanyanya kupararira kune vamwe. Kuti uzive kuti ndeipi shell yatiri kushanda nayo, unogona kutaipa unotevera kuraira uyo unodzorera zita rawo:
 echo $SHELL
  • Ruzivo nezve kernel vhezheni, dhizaini uye distro: Tinogona kuziva ruzivo nezve vhezheni yeLinux kernel iyo yedu distro inoshandisa, pamwe nekuvakwa kweprosesa yedu uye kugovera kwatinoshandisa. Unongofanira kutaipa:
 uname -a
  • Tarisa uone kana yedu system iri munjodzi nekuda kwekuvapo kwe rootkits: rootkits zvishandiso zvakashata sezvamunoziva, izvi zvishandiso zvinobvumidza midzi kupinda kune vanokuvadza vashandisi. Kuti uone kana system yedu yatapukirwa neumwe, isu takatora pasi pasuru iyi uyezve (kubva dhairekitori iko iko kurodha pasi faira, rangarira kushandisa cd kuenda kwariri):
 tar -xvf chkrootkit.tar.gz
cd chkrootkit-0.49/
make sense
./chkrootkit

Ndinovimba zvave zvichikubatsira. Usakanganwa kupindura kupa maonero ako uye kana uchida, tibvunze isu kuti tiwedzere imwe hunyengeri yaunoona ichifadza. Isu takavhurika kune zvamunokumbira.

Mamwe ruzivo uye dzidziso kubva kublog redu - Iwo akanakisa Linux mamwe maWindows zvirongwa, Maitiro ekuisa chero pasuru pane Linux


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  1. Inotarisira data: AB Internet Networks 2008 SL
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Stranderson akadaro

    Kuteedzera uye kunama mameseji nekhibhodi kunoitwa kuve wakasununguka ne:

    Ctrl + Isa -> kopi
    Shift + Isa -> namatidza

  2.   Pepe Matthias akadaro

    negonzo raunosarudza uye bhatani repakati rawakarova. nyore hazvibviri.

  3.   Richard Moon Fuentes akadaro

    Yakanakisa mupiro, zvinondibatsira zvakanyanya pabasa resainzi yekombuta yandiri kuenda kunodzidza

  4.   Pamhepo zvitoro zvemakomputa akadaro

    Mupiro wakanaka zvakadii! Ini ndinozvibatanidza pairi pamapeji angu ewebhu.

  5.   Kike akadaro

    pfupiso huru, ndinokutendai zvikuru

  6.   Jorge Luis Arellano Zubiate - Luckord akadaro

    Ndotenda zvikuru…
    Mirairo yaunotaura inobatsira kwazvo.
    Kwaziso kubva kuLima, Peru
    - Linux Mint 20 -