Kudzokorora kweYakanakisa Desktop Mamiriro ezvinhu a2015

Xerox GUI

Iyo graphical mushandisi interface kana GUI (Graphical Mushandisi Yekushandisa) Iyo chero software interface inoratidza seti yemifananidzo uye graphic zvinhu zvekumiririra iyo ruzivo uye kubatana navo. Iyo yakasarudzika software yakashaya GUI uye zvese zvakaitwa pachishandiswa iyo CLI (Command Line Interface) kana rairo yekuraira interface mune zvinyorwa mode. Izvo zvakange zvisipo kusvika kutanga kwema70 apo timu kuStanford University inotungamirwa naDouglas Engelbart yakagadzira mbeva-inotongwa hyperlinked interface.

Pfungwa yacho yakagadziridzwa nevagadziri kuXerox PARC yemakina avo uye muna 1973 vaizounza komputa yekutanga yega neGUI, kunyangwe zvaisazove kusvika 1981 apo Xerox yaizogadzira yekutanga yekutengesa system neiyi GUI. Kushanya kuXerox kwaive kwakakwanira Apple, nechikwata chakatungamirwa naJef Raskin, kuteedzera zano rekugadzira 1983 Apple Lisa ine graphical interface iyo Xerox yaiita kunge isingaone yakawandisa mikana uye haina kutora zvakanyanya ...

Apple lisa

Microsoft, mukwikwidzi waApple wakanangana panguva iyoyo, aizivawo kutevedzera pfungwa dzaApple kuvhura Windows 1.0 muna 1985, graphical interface yeDOS yayo yeIBM PC michina. Uye kunyangwe nyaya iri refu uye inonakidza, isu hatizotarise pairi. Ingoti izvo kubvira payakatangwa, graphical interfaces yakachinja uye zvachinja zvakanyanya. Basa rakaoma parizvino riri kuitirwa kuvandudzwa kweZUI (Zooming User Interface), GUI inosanganisa 2D uye 3D iyo ichaunza kunatsiridza munguva pfupi iri kutevera.

Uye zvakare, nechitarisiko chekubata masikirini uye fashoni yezvigadzirwa zvemafoni senge mafoni, phablets uye tafura, echinyakare maGII aifanirwa kushanduka kuti achinje uye aenderane nenguva nyowani. Zvakaenzana kushanda muNUI (Natural User Interface), ndiko kuti, nzvimbo dzevashandisi idzo dzinobata-bata masekirini, mbeva, kana zvigadzirwa zvekuisa (makhibhodi, zvimiti zvekufara, madhimoni, styluses, ...) zvasara kumashure uko kwakajairika maGII kunoenderana nekuita nemasaini, izwi, kuzivikanwa kwechiso, nezvimwe. Muenzaniso weNUI ndiyo Xbox Kinect system.

Operation

GUI kopi

Kupfupisa uye kurerutsa maitiro uye mashandiro eGUI, kutaura kuti makomputa nemidziyo inoshandisa graphical interface inoita zviito zvakafanana nezvakaitwa zvemberi uye zvekare masisitimu aishandisa rairo yekuraira mutsara. Chete izvozvi zvave kunzwisisa uye pachinzvimbo chekupinda kuraira iwe unogona kuita chiito uchishandisa kiyi, mbeva kana nekubata iyo skrini.

Semuenzaniso, kana uri muchirongwa chisina GUI waida kuteedzera iyo faira «example.txt» kubva ku / dhairekitori repamba kuenda ku / zvinyorwa zvinyorwa, Ini ndakapinda unotevera kuraira muCLI:

cd /home

cp ejemplo.txt /home/documentos

Iye zvino chingotarisa madhairekitori ehurongwa Kutenda maneja maneja wesystem yedu kusvika wasvika / kumba, tinya negonzo pane icon yefaira «example.txt» (chinova chinhu chinopfuura graphic chinhu chinoshanda sechibatanidza uye chinomiririra iyo chaiyo faira) uye tinya pakopi kuti uende kune dhairekitori rekuenda uye unamate. Kana iwe unogona zvakare kuvhura ese madhairekitori pachiratidziro uye uchizvuzvurudza ... Asi muchokwadi, maitiro aya akabatanidzwa kune yapfuura rairo uye iwo wekuraira "wega-unopinda" iwe usingaone kana kuti unofanirwa kuutaipa.

Naizvozvo michina irikuita zvakafanana chiito kupfuura mumasisitimu ane CLI, chete nechidanho chepamusoro chemashandisirwo ehurdhare nekuda kwekugadzirisa iri giraidhi ... Ndiko kuti, izvo zvandiri kuda kuti iwe unzwisise ndezvekuti GUI haisi chimwe chinhu kunze kweiyo yakawanda isinganzwisisike inotsigirwa neCLI kupfuura ichiripo mune echizvino mashandiro masisitimu, iyo terminal kana koni ndiyo ipfupi yekushanda neiyo system CLI pasina kushandisa iyo GUI.

Mamiriro edesktop

Zvikamu zveDesktop Nharaunda

Kana uchitaura nezve GUI iyo yakawedzera generic pfungwa, chirongwa chinogona kuve neye graphical mushandisi interface, asi kana ichi chinongedzo chiri cheiyo inoshanda system pachayo isu tinofanirwa kutaura nezvayo "Desktop nharaunda" kana DE (Desktop Nharaunda). Iyo DE iseti ye software iyo inopa inoshamwaridzika interface pakati pemushandisi uye iyo inoshanda sisitimu. Iyo inoumbwa neyemaneja maneja (inoita windows kuoneka), graphical server (iyo inobatanidza zvigadzirwa nezvinobuda), kudhonza uye kudonhedza mashandiro, uye zvakajairika GUI graphic zvinhu zvakadai semifananidzo, maturusi, mamenu, mawadhiji, mapikicha, nezvimwe.

MuApple Mac OS X inoshanda sisitimu isu tine yakasarudzika desktop mamiriro, nekuti Apple inongogadzira imwe yeaya ehurongwa hwayo, senge Aqua. Microsoft inoita zvakafanana muWindows, haugone kusarudza pakati peiyo DE kana imwe, seWindows XP yaive neLuna, Aero yeWindows Vista, Metro UI (Yemazuva Ekushandisa Mushandisi) yeWindows 8, nezvimwe. Mukupesana, pane mamwe * nix masisitimu, senge iwo akavakirwa paLinux kernel, panogona kunge paine maDE mazhinji anowanikwa uye iwe unogona kusarudza pakati pezvakawanda (KDE, GNOME, Xfce, Kubatana, ...).

ziso! Desktop haina kufanana nedesktop nharaunda. Semuenzaniso, Plasma kana GNOME Shell kana kunyange Kubatana idesktops uye kwete "mamiriro enzvimbo yedesktop" kunyangwe isu tavasanganisira vakadaro pano. 

Yakanakisa Linux Desktop Mamiriro ezvinhu a2015

Linux CLI

Nguva dzese dzandinoita imwe yeiyi kufananidza kana kuongorora, ini ndinoomerera pachinhu chimwe chete, yakanakisa desktop nharaunda ndiyo yaunonyanya kufarira. Ichi hachisi chinzvimbo umo chakasarudzwa chakanakisa, nekuti vese vane zvinetswa nezvakanaka. Sarudzo ndeyemunhu chaiye uye apa isu tichangozvipa chete, kunyangwe zvisiri zvese, asi zvinonyanya kushamisa. Y kuitira kuti kugovera kwako kweLinux kusatarise sepikicha yapfuura, zvirinani uve nemumwe wavo ...

Kuti usaite kuti runyorwa rurefu zvakanyanya, sezvo paine akawanda pakati pemapurojekiti makuru nemaforogo abuda, tiri kuzosarudza gumi. Inonyanya kuzivikanwa nharaunda dzeLinux desktop yeiyi 2015 zvinotevera:

Plasma Yekushandira nzvimbo

 

Plasma Yekushandira Nzvimbo (KDE)

Unogona kutaura kuti KDE Plasma Workspace, kana kungozivikanwa sePlasma (yaimbove KDE), ndiyo yeEuropean desktop desktop nezvakanaka. Yayo yekutanga vhezheni yakavhurwa muna1998, yakavakirwa paQt fomati, yakanyorwa muC ++ uye inoshandisa Dolphin semaneja wefaira, pamusoro pekuve yakavakirwa paKDE Frameworks tekinoroji base pane iyo desktop nemaapps akavakirwa. Iyo purojekiti yakatangwa mu1996 naMatthias Ettrich uye sevamwe vese yakavhurwa sosi, yakaburitswa pasi peLGPL rezinesi. Pamwe chete neGNOME ndeimwe yevakarwa muhondo uye nekudaro ine rutsigiro rwakawanda uye kuvandudzwa kwayo kunogara kuripo nepuratifomu yakazara yakatenderedza iyo ine zvakawanda zvekushandisa seKMail, Amarok, Calligra Suite, KDevelop, Konsole, Konqueror, Kate , nezvimwewo.

Uye kune iwo mashoma mapositi pane iyi nyaya, chidimbu cheKDE ndicho chirevo chechinyorwa K Desktop Nzvimbo uye ikozvino hadzishandiswi kureva kudesktop, asi kuboka rePlasma rekuvandudza. KDE 4 payakatangwa zita iri shanduko rakasarudzwa uye KDE 5 haina kumbobvira yavapo. Iva zvazvingaite, kuseri kwePlasma kunovanza yakanyanya kugadziriswa, ine simba, yemazuvano desktop desktop uye kunyangwe iri yakaoma kunzwisisa uye yepamusoro fomati, nekudaro haina kutaridzirwa seyakareruka desktop desktop, inogona kushanda pane yekare kana isina simba Hardware isina matambudziko.

GNOME

gnome

Pamwe chete ne KDE, GNOME ndeimwe yenzvimbo huru uye huru yedesktop. Yakatangwa naMiguel de Icaza naFederico Mena sechikamu cheiyo GNU chirongwa uye zita rayo rinobva Gnu Network Object Model Nharaunda. Kutanga kwayo kwekutanga kwakadzokera kuna 1999, saka iri chirongwa chakati siyanei kupfuura KDE uye yakavakwa muC, C ++, Python, Vala, Genie uye JavaScript.

Zvese zviri zviviri GNOME uye zvigadzirwa, kusiyana ne KDE, Inotsamira paGTK +, akateedzana emaraibhurari ekuvandudza ma GUI akasiyana neQt. Asi senge KDE, ine yakakura budiriro uye inotsigira nharaunda, pamwe nekuwanda kwemapurogiramu akagadzirirwa ino nharaunda. Iyo zvakare ine yekuwedzera iyo inogona kuwedzera mashandiro ayo uye iri nyore uye yakatwasuka, asi haina zvimwe zvinoshanda uye yayo yekuwedzera manejimendi system ingave yakaipa kupfuura iya yemakwikwi.

MATE

MATE

Kubva pane iyo GNOME 2 kodhi, MATE forogo inomuka kubva mukukonana uye kusagadzikana neGNOME 3. Iyo inyore uye yakachena nharaunda inogona kushanda pamakomputa ekare kana iine mashoma zviwanikwa, saka inoonekwa senge yakajeka mwenje nharaunda. Uye kunyangwe ichishanda nemazvo, pamwe nharaunda iri kuseri kwechirongwa ichi haina kukura seiya yeKDE kana GNOME.

Utatu

Utatu

Iyo forogo yeKDE, kungofanana neMATE anobva kuGNOME. Kana shanduko dzikaitika mu KDE 4, pakange painewo kusawirirana uye kusagadzikana pakati pevashandisi neTiriniti yakabuda kuenderera nekodhi yeKDE 3. Saka iyi sarudzo yakanaka kune vanofarira yekare KDE kutaridzika uye vane michina ine simba shoma kana yechinyakare.

Xfce

Xfce

Icho chirongwa chine makore mazhinji ekusimudzira. Xfce yakavakirwa paGTK + uye yanga iriko kubvira 1996 kugara uchivandudza. Iyo yakapfava uye yakapusa kushandisa nharaunda, asi hunhu hwayo hukuru uye huzivi hwekuseri kwechirongwa ichi kuve kwechiedza. Ichi chikonzero nei chiri chakaringana kune yakaderera-zviwanikwa kana ekare michina. Ikozvino yakagadziridzwa uye ikapihwa yakafanana kutarisa kune Mac OS X, ine dhoko pazasi uye bhar kumusoro ...

LXDE

LXDE

LXDE inobuda muna 2006 uye iri super mwenje DE, yakanyatsogadziriswa kushandisa zviwanikwa zvishoma uye kumhanya pamashini ane simba shoma kana rakanyanya dhara. Izvo zviri nyore kugadzirisa, zvine simba uye zvakapusa, zvine chitarisiko icho chingangodaro chiyeuchidze zvekare echinyakare DEs kana Windows, saka iri zano rakanaka kune vanotanga.

Chiedza

Chiedza

Tenda kana kwete Kujekesa kunenge kuri kwechinyakare seGNOME uye KDEKunyangwe yakagamuchira kufarira kushoma kubva munharaunda uye inogona kunge isina vakawanda vavandudzi vanofarira chirongwa sematafura makuru. Iyo yakavambwa mu1997 nechinangwa chekugadzira isina huremu desktop iyo yakagadziriswa maererano nemifananidzo uye ine yakanaka yekuona chiitiko.

Icho chiri kure nemamwe madhesiki, saka ndizvo inonakidza kune avo vanotsvaga chakasiyana kumatafura echinyakare. Uye zvakare, inogona kushandurwa kusvika padanho repamusoro uye kunyangwe inogona kunge iri padivi ichienzaniswa nevakwikwidzi vakuru, mamwe ma distros akaisanganisira nekukanganisa ...

Cinnamon

Cinnamon

Cinnamon, muchiSpanish "canela", yakavakirwa paGNOME Shell uye yakagadzirwa neLinux Mint vagadziri muna2012 kuve nenzvimbo yakasarudzika yedesktop kune ino inozivikanwa kugovera. Kunyangwe chirongwa ichi chiri kunakidza uye chinogona kushandiswa mune mamwe ma distros. Mukufarira kwayo, ndinofanira kutaura kuti ine zvakawanda maficha ane madhizaipiti akaita seGNOME kana Kubatana asina.

Iyo inoshanda, yakanyatsogadziriswa, kujairana nezvitsva zvinodiwa nevashandisi vemazuva ano kuve chirongwa chitsva kudaro, chakakwenenzverwa, nezvimwe. Pakati payo ine kuvapo kwezvimwe zvikanganiso zvinogona kugadziriswa nekufamba kwenguva, asi zvakakosha uye maapplet ayo nematafura (desktop mawijeti) anogona kubata pfungwa dzako.

kubatana

kubatana

Kubatana chirongwa chikuru cheCanonical uye yakavakirwa paGNOME uye inogona kutariswa se "desktop nharaunda" uye ini ndakaiisa mune makotesheni nekuti isu tinogona kupinda kuzokurukura izvi ... Zvichida kufanana kwakawanda nenzvimbo dzeApple kunokwezva kutariswa, senge yepamusoro bhaa, launcher (kunyangwe haisi muzasi senge OS X doko) yezvishandiso, yako Dash, nezvimwe. Chiitiko chinondiudza kuti iyo yekuburitsa inokwanisa kuchengetedza iyo icon desktop yakachena, kupfuura mune mamwe madesktop mamiriro kana mashandiro masisitimu ayo anowanzo kupaza iyo yese pamusoro pemapfupi, mifananidzo uye madhairekitori.

Kusiyana nemamwe mapurojekiti, Kubatana kunoshandiswa muUbuntu chete. Asi inopa yakanaka kwazvo mushandisi ruzivo kune avo vanofanirwa kuve nezvose zviripo, zvigadziriswe kana maapps akaisirwa iwo (nekuti zvinosuruvarisa, neicho chinobatanidza nekumisikidza hachigadziriswe zvakawandisa), zvine hungwaru, zvinosanganisira matekinoroji ekupedzisira, nezvimwe. Kupesana nayo kunogona kuve neyayo yekuzivisa system, iyo inogona kuvandudzwa uye kumwe kusawirirana kunofanirwa kukwenenzverwa.

Pantheon

Pantheon

Pantheon ndiyo diki chirongwa chakamboonekwa Parizvino pane urwu runyorwa. Yakagadziridzwa neyekutanga timu yeOS muna 2013 seyakasiyana, yakamira yega, GTK3-yakavakirwa DE. Inogona kukuyeuchidza zvakawanda zveApple Mac OS X yekufanana kwayo uye inorumbidzwa nekuchena kwazvo, kutaridzika kwazvo kwazvino, uye kupusa.

Mune dzimwe nzira zvinogona zvakare kukuyeuchidza nezve Kubatana, asi iine menyu inogoneka, inokatyamadza desktop mhedzisiro, kuenderana kwakanaka, mwenje pakushandisa zviwanikwa, intuitive yevatangi, minimalist, nezvimwe. Inosanganisirawo akawanda maapplication akadai seMidori web browser, yayo yeGeary email mutengi, Noise odhiyo mutambi, switchchboard seDanho rePaneru, chishambadziro chinonzi Slingshot, Dock inonzi Plank, uye maneja wefaira unonzi Pantheon Files.

Mamwe madhesiki mazhinji anoramba ari mupombi, mamwe ane hunyanzvi uye vadiki vakaberekerwa kutyora netsika. Kunge Deepin Desktop Nharaunda yakanyorwa muHTML5 uye yakavakirwa paGNOME, iyo yakapihwa naSolus Project (pamberi peEvolve OS), Papyros (pamberi peQuantum OS) mumwe muenzaniso nebasa ravakaita vachishandisa Google Dhizaini Dhizaini, kana mhinduro dzakapihwa nevagadziri yeOzon OS, iyo shoma shoma yakagara ... 

Usakanganwa kusiya zvaunotaura, mazano uye maonero… Ndinovimba ichi chinyorwa chakazvininipisa chakakubatsira iwe kusarudza yako yaunofarira DE kana iwe usina kusarudza.


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

*

*

  1. Inotarisira data: AB Internet Networks 2008 SL
  2. Chinangwa cheiyo data: Kudzora SPAM, manejimendi manejimendi.
  3. Legitimation: Kubvuma kwako
  4. Kutaurirana kwedata
  5. Dhata yekuchengetedza: Dhatabhesi inobatwa neOccentus Networks (EU)
  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   SATARA akadaro

    Chinyorwa chakanakisa, kunyangwe, kuti uwane chimwe chinhu mazviri, chiri pamusoro peakanyanya maDEs a2015, iyo KDE pikicha yaigona kunge yaibva ku5.
    Ini pachangu, mazuva ese ini ndiri kunyanya kuda Gnome 3, ini ndinoda dhizaini uye nezvayo zvirongwa izvo zvinounza. Uye ini ndinotoda Pantheon futi. KDE, zvisinei, kunyange ini ndichiziva hunhu hwayo, hainyatso kundibata uye chokwadi ndechekuti handizive kuti nei: /
    Ndakanga ndiina Mate kwechinguva uye chokwadi ndechekuti zvaive zvakanaka kwandiri.
    Sinamoni ndinayo yakamirira, ndine muchina chaiwo neLinux Mint asi ini handina kuzara nawo zvakakwana izvozvi.
    Vamwe vanotambura nedistro-hopping, ini kubva kuDE-hopping XD
    Ndinokutendai!

  2.   Javier akadaro

    kwandiri ndinofunga akanakisa ndeaya xububtu ubuntu uye ubuntu mate (iwo ndiwo masheni andinoshandisa ne xD scrutinies) asi handizive kuti nei ndichigara ndichiguma mu xubuntu
    Ndinofanira kuzvitarisa gnome3 chokwadi ndechekuti mhino dzangu dzinoruma uye cyano tb kuti ndione kana ndichivada zvakanyanya asi enda iyo ine ini yakawanda ndeye xubuntu

  3.   Eduardo akadaro

    Shamwari, Isaac, zano rakanaka kwazvo rekutaura nezve madhesiki, asi ini ndinofunga ruzivo rwacho rwuri chaizvo, zvakanyanya, pamusoro. Semuenzaniso, neCinnamon, iwe unotaura kuti ine maficha asina gnome kana kubatana, asi hautaure kuti ndeapi, sekutaura kwaunoita mabugs ekugadzirisa, asi hautsanangure kuti ndeapi. Nenzira iyoyo handifunge kuti ndine chiono chakajeka nezve kuti ndigoedza here kana kuti kwete, zvese zvinoramba zvakaita sechinyorwa chakaverengwa pasina kuwana bhenefiti yakawanda. Kumbundira, ndatenda

  4.   Pepotron akadaro

    KDE haisi yedesktop nharaunda, asi timu yevanhu vanogadzira iyo Plasma nharaunda. Iwe unongofanirwa kutarisa iyo «About KDE» kubva kuMubatsiro menyu yechero application yaitwa _by_ KDE.

    Chinhu che "K Desktop Nzvimbo" chakaenda mazana emakore apfuura, asi hachina kumbobvira chadzokororwa. Haisi nyaya yakaita seGNU;)

  5.   ejcr akadaro

    Ini ndinobvuma kuti yakanakisa desktop desktop ndeye KDE4, ndiyo yega inopa madhikodhi chaiwo (desktop yega yega inogona kuve neayo maitiro akazvimiririra, mashandiro uye plasmoids). Chaizvoizvo mamwe ese maDE ane yavo isiri-desktop nzvimbo dzekushandira, kusanganisira Plasma5 uye Windows10. Zvinosuruvarisa kuti ivo vanoda kuuraya pfungwa yavo.

  6.   Erick cruz akadaro

    Ini pachangu, ini ndagara ndichishandisa XFCE seyangu yekutanga desktop desktop uye ini handichinje: inogadziriswa, isina huremu, uye ine simba. Ini ndoziva kuti kana iwe ukataura nezve zviwanikwa hapana senge LXDE, asi kuti uve nechiyero, ini ndinoda XFCE mune chero distro yainogara.

  7.   Matiyasi akadaro

    Ini ndinoda lxde, zvishoma gnome, uye ikozvino ndiri kuona nekushandisa lxqt.

  8.   gumer akadaro

    Ndinofunga ini ndinoona iyo desktop 1% ichienzaniswa nemaapplication. Ini handina basa kana iri yakanaka, yechazvino, nezvimwe. Chandinoda ndechekuti zvive zvinoshanda uye zvinoshandisa mashoma mashoma zviwanikwa zvekomputa yangu yekare. Ndokusaka ini ndichishandisa openbox.

  9.   Leo akadaro

    Simba LXDE !!! kwandiri zvakanakisa nekure. : D

  10.   Jose Manuel Glez Rosas akadaro

    Ini ndinosuwa rakanakisa uye rakanakisa desktop: Deepin DE

  11.   Bryan Ch akadaro

    Ini ndinopedzisira ndoshandisa, mune yega yega yekuvandudza yeUbuntu hwangu, iyo Gnome Classic ... yakapusa, yakajairwa uye zvese zviri padhuze, sekureba sekufunga kwangu kurangarira ...

  12.   Edgar Ilasaca Aquima akadaro

    Zvingave zvainakidza dai vakaisawo nzira yekumisikidza, kunyanya kune avo vari kutanga kubuda muGNU / Linux