Bvisa kusahadzika neiyi dhayagiramu yakasarudzika: ndeipi Linux kugovera kushandisa?

chii linux kugovera kushandisa, chii linux distros yekusarudza

Nguva zhinji unogara uchizvibvunza mubvunzo wakafanana: iyo Linux kugovera kushandisa, kana iyo Linux distro yekusarudza. Zvakanaka, chimwe chinhu chinowanzo konzera kusahadzika kunyanya muvatsva kuGNU/Linux nyika, asiwo mune vamwe vanga varipo kwenguva uye vaneta neimwe distro vofunga kuyedza imwe yakasiyana.

Muchikamu chino, zvichienderana nezvaunoda, unogona kutarisa kuti ndeipi GNU/Linux kugovera iwe yaunofanirwa kusarudza. Nekudaro, sezvandinogara ndichitaura, iyo yakanyanya kunaka ndiyo yaunonzwa wakasununguka nayo uye nekufarira zvakanyanya. Takatoita zvinyorwa zvakawanda pamusoro the best distros, asi nguva ino ichava chimwe chinhu chakasiyana zvikuru, chimwe chinhu chinonyanya kushanda uye intuitive, sezvo ini ndichagovera zvimwe yakapusa madhiramu izvo zvinokuendesa kune yako ramangwana sisitimu yekushandisa, mukuwedzera pakudzidza mamwe maitiro ekusarudza:

Maitiro ekusarudza iyo Linux kugovera

Chiratidzo Kernel Linux, Tux

Kuti ikubatsire iwe nesarudzo yeramangwana rako rekushandisa sisitimu kana Linux kugovera, heano iwo inonyanya kukosha yekusarudza maitiro:

  • Chinangwa: Chiyero chekutanga chekutarisisa pakusarudza yakakodzera Linux kugovera ndicho chinangwa chachaizoshandiswa.
    • General: Vazhinji vashandisi vanoida kuti ishandiswe jena, ndiko kuti, kune zvese, zvese kutamba multimedia, pamwe neyehofisi software, kufamba, mitambo yemavhidhiyo, nezvimwe. Nekuda kwezvinangwa izvi ndiko kugovera kwakawanda, seUbuntu, Debian, Linux Mint, Fedora, openSUSE, nezvimwe.
    • Rarama/MiedzoOngorora: Kana iwe uchingoda kumhanyisa distro yekuyedza kana kugadzirisa pakombuta pasina kuisa kana kushandura zvikamu, bheji yako yakanaka ndeye ine LiveDVD kana Live USB modhi yekumhanya kubva mundangariro huru. Iwe une akawanda seUbuntu, Knoppix, Slack, Finnix, RescaTux, Clonecilla Live, nezvimwe. Aya maviri ekupedzisira kuita kuongororwa uye kugadzirisa.
    • Chaicho: imwe mukana ndeyekuti iwe unoda distro kune yakanyatso shandiswa uye yakanyatso shandiswa, senge yekuvandudza, yeinjiniya kana dhizaini, yenzvimbo dzedzidzo, pentesting kana kuchengetedza ongororo, mitambo yemitambo uye retro mutambo, nezvimwe. Uye pane izvi iwe zvakare une mamwe akasarudzika seKali Linux, Ubuntu Studio, SteamOS, Lakka, Batocera Linux, DebianEdu, EskoleLinux, Shuga, KanOS, nezvimwe. Mamwe ruzivo pano.
    • tefa-Mamwe distros anobvumira dhigirii repamusoro rekugadzirisa, senge Gentoo, Slackware, Arch Linux, nezvimwe. Asi kana iwe uchida kuenda mberi uye kugadzira yako distro kubva kutanga, pasina kuzvimisira pane chero, unogona kushandisa. LFS.
  • Rudzi rwemushandisi: kune marudzi akati wandei evashandisi maererano neruzivo, sevanotangisa kana vachangouya kunyika yeGNU/Linux, kana vepamberi, pamwe neavo vepamberi vari kutsvaga chinhu chimwe chete sevanotangisa, nyore, inoshanda distro, ine kugarisana kwakanaka, uye izvo zvinovatendera kuti vaite basa ravo zvakanaka uye zvine pundutso.
    • Kutanga: Kune vanotanga kune akareruka distros seUbuntu, Linux Mint, Zorin OS, Manjaro, MX Linux, Pop!_OS, elementaryOS, Solus OS, nezvimwe.
    • Akafambiswa: Mamwe distros evashandisi ava Gentoo, Slackware, Arch Linux, nezvimwe.
  • Zvakatipoteredza: Chimwe chinhu chaunofanirwa kufunga nezvacho usati wasarudza kugovera imhando yenzvimbo iyo ichave yakanangwa, sezvo paine distros inokodzera zvirinani kune iwo nharaunda kupfuura mamwe.
    • Desk: kushandisa paPC kumba kana muhofisi, nzvimbo yedzidzo, nezvimwe, unogona kushandisa distros senge openSUSE, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, nezvimwe zvakawanda.
    • Mobile: Kune chaiwo distros emidziyo nhare, seTizen, LuneOS, Ubuntu Touch, postmarketOS, Mobian, nezvimwe.
    • Sevha/HPC: munyaya iyi vanofanira kunge vakachengeteka, vakasimba uye vakagadzikana zvikuru, pamwe chete nekuve nematurusi ekugadzirisa zvakanaka. Mimwe mienzaniso yakakurumbira ndeye RHEL, SLES, Ubuntu Server, Debian, Liberty Linux, AlmaLinux, Rocky Linux, Oracle Linux, nezvimwe.
    • Cloud/Vitualization: kune dzimwe nyaya idzi une Debian, Ubuntu Server, RHEL, SLES, Cloud Linux, RancherOS, Clear Linux, nezvimwe.
    • embedded: midziyo yakaita se smart TV, marouters, zvimwe midziyo yemumba, mota, maindasitiri emuchina, marobhoti, IoT, nezvimwewo, zvinodawo masisitimu anoshanda seWebOS, Tizen, Android Auto, Raspbian OS, Ubuntu Core, Meego, OpenWRT, uClinux, nezvimwewo.
  • Tsigiro: Ruzhinji rwevashandisi, kunyanya vashandisi vekumba, havawanzo kuda rutsigiro. Kana matambudziko amuka kana kuenda kune mumwe munhu ane ruzivo nezvenyaya yacho kana kungotsvaga maforamu kana network kuti agadzirise. Kune rimwe divi, mumakambani, uye mune mamwe masekete, zvinodikanwa kuve nerutsigiro rwekugadzirisa matambudziko.
    • Community: Aya distros anowanzo mahara zvachose, asi anoshaya rutsigiro rwekuvandudza.
    • bhizinesi giredhi: Vamwe vakasununguka, asi iwe unofanirwa kubhadhara kutsigirwa. Ichava iyo kambani pachayo inotarisira kupa rubatsiro. Semuenzaniso, Red Hat, SUSE, Oracle, Canonical, nezvimwe.
  • Kugadzikana: zvichienderana nezvauchashandisira, kana iwe uchida kuva nenhau dzichangoburwa nemutengo wekudzikama kushoma, kana kana uchida chimwe chinhu chakagadzikana uye chakasimba kunyangwe usina chazvino, unogona kusarudza pakati:
    • Gadzira/Debug: Unogona kuwana shanduro dzekuvandudza kernel uye mamwe distros, pamwe nemamwe akawanda software mapakeji. Vanogona kunge vakanaka pakuyedza zvichangobva kuitika, kugadzirisa, kana kubatsira kusimudzira nekutaura tsikidzi. Kune rumwe rutivi, idzi shanduro dzinofanira kudziviswa kana izvo zvauri kutsvaga zvakagadzikana.
    • Yakasimba:
      • Kusunungurwa Kwakasununguka: Mavhezheni anobuda nguva nenguva, kazhinji anogona kuva mwedzi mitanhatu yega yega kana gore rega rega, uye anogadziridzwa kusvika pakusvika kweinotevera vhezheni huru. Ivo vanopa kugadzikana uye ndiyo nzira yakatorwa nevakawanda vanozivikanwa distros.
        • LTS (Kutsigira Kwenguva Yakareba): zvese kernel uye distros ivo pachavo vane mune dzimwe nguva LTS shanduro, ndiko kuti, ivo vanozove nevanochengetedza vakazvipira kuenderera mberi nekuburitsa zvigadziriso uye chengetedzo zvigamba munguva refu (5, 10 makore ...), kunyangwe paine dzimwe shanduro itsva dziripo.
      • Kutenderera Kuburitswa: pachinzvimbo chekutanga vhezheni dzinoenderana nenguva dzinonyora pamusoro peyakapfuura, modhi iyi inotangisa inogadziridza nguva dzose. Iyi imwe sarudzo inobvumidza iwe kuve neyazvino, asi haina kugadzikana seyakapfuura.
  • Architecture:
    • IA-32/AMD64: Yekutanga inozivikanwawo se x86-32 uye yekupedzisira se EM64T neIntel, kana x86-64 yakawanda generically. Inosanganisira Intel uye AMD processors, pakati pevamwe, yezvizvarwa zvichangoburwa izvo Linux kernel ine yakasarudzika rutsigiro, sezvo iri iyo yakanyanya kupararira.
    • ARM32/ARM64: Yechipiri inozivikanwawo seAArch64. Aya mavakirwo akatorwa nenharembozha, marouters, Smart TVs, SBCs, uye kunyange maseva nemakomputa makuru, nekuda kwekuita kwavo kwakanyanya uye kugona. Linux zvakare ine rutsigiro rwakanyanya kwavari.
    • RISC-V: Iyi ISA yakazvarwa nguva pfupi yadarika, uye yakavhurika sosi. Zvishoma nezvishoma iri kuwedzera kukosha, uye kuve kutyisidzira kune x86 uye ARM. Iyo Linux kernel yanga iri yekutanga kuve nerutsigiro rwayo.
    • SIMBA: Ichi chimwe chivakwa chakakurumbira kwazvo munyika yeHPC, muIBM machipisi. Iwe zvakare uchawana Linux kernels yeiyi dhizaini.
    • vamwe: hongu, kune mamwe akawanda ezvivakwa ayo Linux kernel inoenderana nawo (PPC, SPARC, AVR32, MIPS, SuperH, DLX, z/Architecture…), kunyangwe izvi zvisingawande muPC kana HPC nyika .
  • hardware rutsigiro: Mamwe eaya ane yakanakisa tsigiro yehardware ndeye Ubuntu, Fedora, uye mamwe akakurumbira, kusanganisira ayo anobva kwavari. Pamusoro pezvo, kune zvimwe zvinosanganisira vatyairi vemahara uye vevaridzi, vamwe vanongove vekutanga, saka kuita kwavo uye kushanda kwavo kunogona kuve kwakati wandei. Nekune rimwe divi, panogara paine dambudziko rekuti distro yakaremerwa here kana kuti yakadonhedza 32-bit rutsigiro kuti ishande pamakina ekare kana ezviwanikwa.
    • Vatyairi:
      • Mahara: Mazhinji eakavhurika sosi madhiraivha anoshanda nemazvo, kunyangwe mune angangoita ese zviitiko ivo vakapfuura nevakavharwa sosi iwo. Iwo distros anongosanganisira aya ndiwo 100% emahara ayo andakataura gare gare.
      • Varidzi: Munyaya yevatambi, kana kune mamwe mashandisirwo pazvinenge zvichidikanwa kubvisa huwandu kubva kune hardware, zviri nani kusarudza varidzi, kunyanya kana zvasvika kune GPU.
    • light distros: Pane zvakawanda zvakagoverwa zvakagadzirirwa kutsigira makombiyuta ekare kana avo vane zviwanikwa zvishoma. Aya anowanzo kuve nemwenje desktop nharaunda dzandinotaura gare gare. Mienzaniso ndeiyi: Puppy Linux, Linux Lite, Lubuntu, Bodhi Linux, Tiny Core Linux, antX, nezvimwe.
  • Tsigiro yeSoftware uye pre-yakaiswa software+ Nekuuya kwemapakeji epasirese kuri kubatsira vanogadzira kusvika kune mamwe distros, asi havasati vachishandiswa zvakanyanya sezvavanofanira kunge vari. Kune rimwe divi, zvinogona zvakare kuti iwe unoda yakakwana sisitimu, ine inenge yese inodiwa software isati yaiswa, kana kana iwe uchingoda yakanyanya diki uye yakapusa sisitimu.
    • Minimal: Kune akawanda madiki distros kana ayo ane mukana wekurodha ISO mifananidzo neiyo base system uye hapana chimwe chinhu, kuti iwe ugone kuwedzera mapakeji aunoda kune zvaunoda.
    • Pedzisa: Iyo inonyanya kufarirwa sarudzo ndeye yakazara maISO, saka haufanirwe kunetseka nekuisa zvese kubva pakutanga, asi iwe unotova nenhamba yakakura yemapakeji kubva panguva yekutanga yaunoisa distro.
  • Chengetedzo uye kuvanzika / kusazivikanwa+ Kana zviri zvekusazivikanwa / kuvanzika, kune izvo zvakagadzirirwa izvo kana iwe uchida.
    • Normal: Iwo anonyanya kufarirwa distros senge openSUSE, Linux Mint, Ubuntu, Debian, Arch Linux, Fedora, CentOS, nezvimwewo, vane rutsigiro rwakakura uye kuchengetedza gadziriso, kunyangwe ivo vasina kutariswa pakuchengetedza, kuvanzika / kusazivikanwa.
    • Armored: kune mamwe ane mamwe mabasa anoomesa kana anoremekedza kusazivikanwa kana kuvanzika kwemushandisi semusimboti wakakosha. Mimwe mienzaniso yaunotoziva, senge TAILS, Qubes OS, Whonix, nezvimwe.
  • Kutanga system: Sezvaungave uchiziva, ichi chinhu chakapatsanura vashandisi vazhinji uye vatariri vehurongwa pakati peavo vanosarudza yakapfava uye yakawedzera classic init system, seSysV init, kana yazvino uye yakakura senge systemd.
    • Classic (SysV init): yakashandiswa nevakawanda ve distros, kunyangwe mazuva ano vangangove vese vakatamira kune yazvino systemd. Pakati pezvakanakira ndezvekuti iri nyore uye yakareruka, kunyangwe zvakare yakare uye haina kugadzirwa panguva yemazuva ano ekushandisa masisitimu. Vamwe vachiri kushandisa sisitimu iyi Devuan, Alpine Linux, Void Linux, Slackware, Gentoo, nezvimwe.
    • Mazuvano (System): Iyo inorema zvakanyanya uye inovhara kupfuura yekare, asi ndiyo yakasarudzwa nevakawanda distros nekusarudzika. Iyo iri nani yakabatanidzwa muhurongwa hwemazuva ano, ine huwandu hwematurusi ekutungamira anoita kuti basa rive nyore. Kupesana nayo, zvichida, ine iyo kurasikirwa kweUnix uzivi hwakapiwa kuoma kwayo, uyewo kushandiswa kwebhinari matanda panzvimbo yezvinyorwa zvakajeka, kunyange zvazvo kune marudzi ose emafungiro pane izvi ...
    • vamwe: Kune dzimwe nzira dzisina kufarirwa zvakanyanya senge runit, GNU Sherped, Upstart, OpenRC, busy-box init, nezvimwe.
  • Aesthetic zvinhu uye desktop nharaunda: Kunyangwe iwe uchigona kuisa iyo desktop nharaunda yaunoda mune chero kugovera, ichokwadi kuti mazhinji acho atouya ane default desktop nharaunda. Kusarudza iyo yakarurama haisi nyaya yeaesthetics chete, asiwo yekushandiswa, kugadzirisa, kushanda uye kunyange kushanda.
    • GNOME: zvichibva pamaraibhurari eGTK, ndiyo nharaunda inotonga, iyo yakanyanya kukwidziridzwa pakati pekugovera kwakakosha. Iyo yakatarisana nekuve nyore uye nyore kushandisa, ine nharaunda yakakura, kunyangwe ichirema maererano nekushandisa zviwanikwa. Pamusoro pezvo, zvakapawo kusimuka kune zvinobva (Pantheon, Unity Shell ...).
    • KDE Plasma: zvichibva pamaraibhurari eQt, ndiyo imwe purojekiti huru maererano nedesktop, uye inoratidzwa nemabatiro airi kuita uye, nguva pfupi yadarika, nekuita kwayo, sezvo "yakarasikirwa nehuremu" zvakanyanya, ichizviona seyakajeka (inoshandisa zvishoma zviwanikwa zvehardware), pamwe nekutaridzika kwayo, kusimba, uye mukana wekushandisa majeti. Kupokana nazvo, pamwe zvinogona kucherechedzwa kuti hazvisi nyore seGNOME. Kufanana neGNOME, zvakatorwa seTDE, nezvimwe zvakaonekwawo.
    • MATE: Ndiyo imwe yeanonyanya kufarirwa maforogo eGNOME ave. Inoshanda zvakanaka, yakanaka, yemazuva ano, yakapusa, Windows desktop-senge, uye haina kunyanya kushanduka mumakore achangopfuura.
    • Cinnamon: Iyo zvakare yakavakirwa paGNOME, ine chitarisiko chakareruka uye chinokwezva, pamwe nekuchinjika, kuwedzera uye nekukurumidza. Pamwe padivi rakashata une kudikanwa kwekushandisa ropafadzo kune mamwe mabasa.
    • LXDE: yakavakirwa paGTK uye inzvimbo yakareruka, yakagadzirirwa kushandisa zviwanikwa zvishoma. Inokurumidza, inoshanda uye ine chitarisiko chekare. Pazasi ine zvimwe zvinogumira zvichienzaniswa nenzvimbo hombe, uye kuti haina yayo hwindo maneja.
    • LXQt: yakavakirwa paQt, uye ichibuda kubva kuLXDE, zvakare ikareruka, modular uye inoshanda nharaunda. Zvakafanana neyakapfuura, kunyangwe inogona zvakare kuve yakapusa padanho rekuona.
    • Xfce: yakavakirwa paGTK, imwe yeakanakisa kureruka nharaunda pamwe neaya maviri apfuura. Iyo inomira kunze kwekunaka kwayo, kuve nyore, kugadzikana, modularity uye configurability. Kufanana nedzimwe nzira dzayo, inogona kuva nemiganhu kune vamwe vashandisi vari kutsvaga chimwe chinhu chemazuva ano.
    • vamwe: kune vamwe, kunyangwe vari vashoma, Budgie, Deepin, Enlightenment, CDE, Shuga, nezvimwe.
  • Pasuru maneja: zvese zvine chekuita nekutonga, kana iwe wakajaira kushandisa imwe kana imwe pasuru maneja, uye nekuda kwezvikonzero zvekuenderana, zvichienderana nerudzi rwebhinari iyo software yaunowanzo shandisa yakaputirwa, iwe unofanirwawo kufunga kusarudza iyo yakakodzera distro.
    • DEB-yakavakirwa: Ndivo ruzhinji rwekutenda kuDebian, Ubuntu uye zvakawanda zvinobva kwavari zvave zvakakurumbira, saka kana iwe uchida kuwanikwa kukuru kwemabhinari, iyi ndiyo yakanyanya kunaka sarudzo.
    • RPM-based: Kune zvakare akawanda mapakeji erudzi urwu, kunyangwe asina akawanda, kubva distros akadai openSUSE, Fedora, nezvimwewo, uye haasati asvika mamirioni evashandisi seakapfuura.
    • vamwe: Kune zvakare mamwe madiki epakeji mamaneja akadai seArch Linux's pacman, Gentoo's portage, Slackware's pkg, nezvimwe. Muchiitiko ichi, kazhinji hapana software yakawanda kunze kweiyo yepamutemo repos ye distros. Neraki, mapakeji epasirese seAppImage, Snap, kana FlatPak aita kuti igoneke kune ese GNU/Linux distros.
  • misimboti/tsika: Zvinoreva kana iwe uchingoda inoshanda inoshanda sisitimu, kana iwe uchitsvaga chimwe chinhu chinoenderana nemaitiro ehunhu kana misimboti.
    • Normal: Mazhinji distros anosanganisira yemahara uye yevaridzi software mune yavo repos, pamwe nemamodule evaridzi mukernel yavo. Nenzira iyi iwe uchave neiyo firmware uye vatyairi vevaridzi kana iwe uchiida, kana zvimwe zvinhu zvakaita sevaridzi macodecs emultimedia, encryption, nezvimwe.
    • 100% mahara: iwo ma distros akabvisa ese akavharika masosi kubva kune avo repos, uye kunyange kushandisa iyo GNU Linux Libre kernel, isina binary blobs. Mimwe mienzaniso ndeye Guix, Pure OS, Trisquel GNU/Linux, Protean OS, nezvimwe.
  • Certified: Mune zvimwe zviitiko, zvingave zvakakosha kuti kugoverwa kweGNU/Linux kuremekedze mamwe mwero kana kuve nezvimwe zvitupa zvezvikonzero zvekuenderana kana kuti zvigone kushandiswa mune mamwe masangano.
    • Hapana chitupa: mamwe ese distros. Kunyangwe ruzhinji rwuri POSIX-inoenderana, uye mamwe mamwe anoenderana neLSB, FHS, nezvimwe. Semuenzaniso, kune zvimwe zvisinganzwisisike seVoid Linux, NixOS, GoboLinux, nezvimwewo, izvo zvinotsauka kubva kune mamwe maitiro.
    • nechitupa: Vamwe vane zvitupa senge zveThe Open Group, senge:
      • Inspur K-UX yaive Red Hat Enterprise Linux-based distro yakakwanisa kunyoreswa seUNIX.®, kunyange zvazvo iye zvino yakasiiwa.
      • Iwe zvakare uchawana vamwe vane zvimwe zvitupa, zvakaita seSUSE Linux Enterprise Server uye yayo IBM Tivoli Directory Serve ine LDAP Certified V2 chitupa.
      • Iyo Huawei EulerOS inoshanda sisitimu, yakavakirwa paCentOS, zvakare yakanyoreswa UNIX 03 Standard.

Dhiyagiramu yekusarudza OS

Dhiagiramu iyi yakauya kwandiri kuburikidza neshamwari yakandipfuudza, uye ndakafunga kutsvaga zvimwe uye kugovera iyo kubatsira nhamba yakanaka yemhando dzakasiyana dzevashandisi uye zvinodiwa. Y mhedzisiro yekuunganidza maflowcharts ndeichi:

Uri kuuya kubva kune imwe OS?

Rangarira hongu uchangosvika munyika yeGNU/Linux uye uchibva kune mamwe masisitimu anoshanda akasiyana, iwe unogona zvakare kuona aya madhairekitori andakaita kuti akubatsire iwe mukusarudza kwekutanga distro uye panguva yekuchinja kwako:

Mune aya malink uchawana izvo kugovera zvakakunakira iwe., ine nharaunda dzine hushamwari dzakafanana nedzawakamboshandisa...


Izvo zviri muchinyorwa zvinoomerera pamisimboti yedu ye tsika dzekunyora. Kuti utaure chikanganiso tinya pano.

Makomendi gumi, siya zvako

Siya yako yekutaura

Your kero e havazobvumirwi ichibudiswa.

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  6. Kodzero: Panguva ipi neipi iwe unogona kudzora, kupora uye kudzima ruzivo rwako

  1.   Hernan akadaro

    Noti yakanaka. Ndatenda.

  2.   Sophia akadaro

    Kana iwe uchitsvaga yakanakisa software rutsigiro, ingave zvirongwa zvechero mhando kana vhidhiyogames, zvakanakisa sarudzo dzakakurumbira distros yakavakirwa paDEB neRPM, kunyangwe zviri nani iyo yekutanga iri nani. Nekuuya kwemapakeji epasirese iri kubatsira vanogadzira kusvika kune mamwe distros
    192.168..l00.1.