How is the Linux file system structure made up? - Part 2

directory-tree-so-linux

For those users who are new to Linux you should know that Linux is composed in a totally different way than the directory structure you might be used to from Windows.

In a previous article we talked about some of the main directories that make up the hierarchy within Linux. And this time we are going to talk about some others that I need to mention in the previous article.

/ lost + found

Every Linux file system has a lost + found directory. If a system hangs, the next boot will check the file system.

And everyone the corrupted files found during the system check are placed in the lost + found directory, so that you can try to recover as much data as possible.

/ media removable media device

This directory contains subdirectories, in which l are mountedThe media of the devices connected to the computer.

For example, if the USB drive is inserted into your Linux system, in the directory it will automatically create a folder for it. You can access the contents of the USB by going into this directory.

/ mnt - temporary mount point

This directory contains external file systems that have been mounted.

The entities that appear within / mnt represent external resources that can be accessed through this directory.

/ Opt

This directory contains subdirectories for additional packages. It is often used to store additional files for programs installed on the system.

/ proc kernel files and processes

The / proc directory it is similar to the / dev directory, because it does not contain any of the standard files. Contains special files that represent system and process information.

/ root - root directory

This directory is the directory for the root user (/ home / root). You need to distinguish this directory from /, which is the root of the directory system.

/ run

This directory provides us applications with a standard place to store transient filesas well as identification processes and sockets. As well as files that cannot be stored in / tmp, since files in / tmp can be deleted.

/ sbin system administration binaries

This directory it is similar to the / bin directory, as it contains the necessary binary files that are most likely to be used by the root user for system administration.

All these directories (/ sbin, / usr / sbin and / usr / local / sbin) are used for administrative purposes, therefore only the administrator can run their content.

/ srv data service

This directory ccontains data for the services provided by the system, a practical example for this is if the Apache HTTP server is used to work with websites

/ tmp temporary data

Applications store temporary files in / tmp. These files are usually deleted when the system restarts.

/ usr user binary files and read-only data

The / usr c directorycontains the applications and files used by users.

For example, They are not necessary for the operation of system applications as they are stored in the / usr / bin directory instead of the / bin directory, and the binaries required for system administration are not stored in the / usr / sbin directory instead of / sbin.

The libraries for each application are stored in the / usr / lib directory and / usr also contains other folders, for example, architecture independent files, such as graphics, are stored in / usr / share.

In the / usr / local directory the applications are usually installed locally compiled because they do not obstruct the rest of the system.

/ var variable data

This directory it will contain variable and temporary data files, as well as spool files (files stored in a queue waiting to be executed, such as print queues).

All the system logs and those generated by the installed services are located within the hierarchical structure of / var. This means that the overall size of this directory will constantly grow.

The usefulness of / var lies in being able to detect problems to prevent and solve them.


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  1.   Leonardo said

    Very good article. Ever saw a / Palo folder. What is that for?