Grub de Linux (V). Notaciones del Grub

Llegamos al final de la entrega sobre notaciones de Grub, obviamente hay muchas más pero sólo nos hemos detenido a explicar las más importantes sobre el arranque del Grub y que suelen interferir en casi todos los problemas que se reportan de corrupción.

Grub de Linux

Veamos algunos ejemplos más.

El siguiente ejemplo se escribe en el menu.lst de Ubuntu

title Windows 95/98/NT/2000
root (hd0,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1

title Linux
root (hd0,1)
kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/hda3 ro

Comenzamos con el título. raíz especifica la partición donde se espera encontrar el núcleo de Windows y lo monta.

El  comando makeactive establece la partición activa del disco raíz en el dispositivo raíz de GRUB. Esto significa que el siguiente comando chainloader, se ejecuta sin la partición de destino especificado

La segunda entrada es aún más simple. Llamamos a un sistema Linux desde  su partición  para arrancar el kernel. En este caso  vemos la imagen del núcleo y la raíz (/) en la partición del sistema operativo que no se encuentran en la misma partición. Este sería un caso muy probable en los equipos más antiguos o que tienen una partición de arranque específico.

Notaciones poco usuales.

# Grub menu booting 103 systems out of 144 partitions

color white/blue black/light-gray
default 0
timeout 1000

# Disk hda has 60 partitions fully populated 56 are bootable systems 

title DOS 6.22 @ hda1
unhide (hd0,0)
root (hd0,0)
chainloader +1           

#  hda2 is the extended partition  and has no storage space itself

title Empty @ hda3 #initially used by a BSD system moved to another disk
root (hd0,2)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ hda4#initially used by a BSD system moved to another disk
root (hd0,3)
chainloader +1

# hda5 is a swap partition common to all Linux in the box

title Puppy 1.0.6 @ hda6
root (hd0,5)
chainloader +1

title Arch 0.71 @ hda7
root (hd0,6)
chainloader +1

title Mandrake 9.2 @ hda8
root (hd0,7)
chainloader +1

title Suse 9.1 pro @ hda9
root (hd0,8)
chainloader +1

title eLive 0.3 @ hda10
root (hd0,9)
chainloader +1

title Red Hat 9 @ hda11
root (hd0,10)
chainloader +1

title Lycoris 4 @ hda12
root (hd0,11)
chainloader +1

title Libranet 2.8.1 @ hda13
root (hd0,12)
chainloader +1

title Mandrake 10 @hda14
root (hd0,13)
chainloader +1

title Debian Woody @ hda15
root (hd0,14)
chainloader +1
 

title Yoper 2.0.0 @ hda16
root (hd0,15)
chainloader +1

title Knoppix 3.6 @ hda17
root (hd0,16)
chainloader +1

title Bufflo 1.5 @ hda18
root (hd0,17)
chainloader +1

title Kanotix 2004.9 @ hda19
root (hd0,18)
chainloader +1

title Kalango 3.2 @ hda20
root (hd0,19)
chainloader +1

title Blax 30001 @ hda21
root (hd0,20)
chainloader +1

title Fedora Core 4 @ hda22
root (hd0,21)
chainloader +1

title Debian Sarge (booted directly because high partitions not supported) in hda23
root (hd0,22)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.4.27-2-386 root=/dev/hda23 ro
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.4.27-2-386

title Red Flag 4.1 @ hda24
root (hd0,23)
chainloader +1

title Linare prof Edition 2 @ hda25
root (hd0,24)
chainloader +1

title Tiny Sofa 2.0 @ hda26
root (hd0,25)
chainloader +1

title Slackware 10.0 @ hda27
root (hd0,26)
chainloader +1

title Xandros 201 @ hda28
root (hd0,27)
chainloader +1

title Vine 3.2 @ hda29
root (hd0,28)
chainloader +1

title Specifix 0.15 @ hda30
root (hd0,29)
chainloader +1

title Ubunto 5.04 @ hda31
root (hd0,30)
chainloader +1

title PCLinuxOS 9.1 @ hda32
root (hd0,31)
chainloader +1

#  Here is the approximate 137Gb barrier in the hard disk hda

title Asian Linux  @ hda33
root (hd0,32)
chainloader +1

title Ubuntu 6.04 Dapper (by direct boot) @ hda34
root (hd0,33)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.15-8-386 root=/dev/hda34 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.15-8-386

title Wolvix 1.0.4  @ hda35
root (hd0,34)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz rw root=/dev/hda35

title Mepis 3.4.2 rc1 (by direct booting) @ hda36
root (hd0,35)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.12-1-586tsc root=/dev/hda36 nomce quiet splash=verbose vga=791
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.12-1-586tsc
 

title TurboLinux V7 @ hda37 (boot with Slackware 10 kernel in hda27 +rw)
root (hd0,36)
kernel (hd0,26)/boot/vmlinuz rw root=/dev/hda37

title Slampp 1.1 @ hda38
root (hd0,37)
chainloader +1

title Slax 5.0.4 @ hda39
root (hd0,38)
chainloader +1

title PCLinuxOS 0.92 @ hda40
root (hd0,39)

chainloader +1
             

title Sam 1.1 @ hda41
root (hd0,40)
chainloader +1

title Vector 5.1 @ hda42
root (hd0,41)
chainloader +1

title Suse 10.0 @ hda43
root (hd0,42)
chainloader +1

title Kororaa 2005 Beta 2 @ hda44
root (hd0,43)
chainloader +1                 

title smgl 0.45 @ hda45
root (hd0,44)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz root=/dev/hda45 ro

title Lunar 1.6 @ hda46
root (hd0,45)
kernel /boot/2.6.14.1-normal ro root=/dev/hda46 devfs=no mount     

title Foresight 0.93 @ hda47
root (hd0,46)
chainloader +1               

title Skolelinux Pro 6  in hda48
root (hd0,47)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.8-2-386 root=/dev/hda48 ro
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.8-2-386                           

title Kubuntu dapper in hda49
root (hd0,48)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.12-9-386 root=/dev/hda49 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.12-9-386

title Klax 3.5 @ hda50
root (hd0,49)
chainloader +1

title K12LTSP 4.10 (need rw switch on) @ hda51
root (hd0,50)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.7-1.494.2.2 rw root=/dev/hda51
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.7-1.494.2.2.img                           

title Progeny 2.0 booted by Slackware’s kernel  @ hda52
root (hd0,51)
kernel (hd0,26)/boot/vmlinuz ro root=/dev/hda52

title grml 0.5 @ hda53
root (hd0,52)
chainloader +1                 

title Fedora Core 2 @ hda54 (must be booted directly  with rw switch)
root (hd0,53)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.5-1.358 rw root=/dev/hda54
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.5-1.358.img       

title Whax 3.0 @ hda55
root (hd0,54)
chainloader +1

title Troppix 1.2 @ hda56
root (hd0,55)
chainloader +1                 

title TopologLinux 6.0 @ hda57
root (hd0,56)
chainloader +1                 

title Haansoft 2006 ws @ hda58
root (hd0,57)
chainloader +1

title Fedora Core 3 @ hda59
root (hd0,58)
chainloader +1                 

title Scientific Linux (with rw) @ hda60
root (hd0,59)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.9-5.0.5.EL rw root=/dev/hda60 rhgb quiet
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.9-5.0.5.EL.img

# Disk hdc has 54 partitions with 30 systems

title Dos 7.10 @ hdc1
hide (hd0,0)
unhide (hd1,0)
map (hd1) (hd0)
map (hd0) (hd1)
root (hd1,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1

title Win98 @ hdc2
hide (hd0,0)
hide (hd1,0)
unhide (hd1,1)
root (hd1,1)
makeactive
map (hd1) (hd0)
map (hd0) (hd1)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ hdc3
root (hd1,2)
chainloader +1

# Extended partition is hdc4

title B2D Pure KDE 2005 @ hdc5
root (hd1,4)
chainloader +1

title CollegeLinux 2.5 @ hdc6
root (hd1,5)
chainloader +1

title Berry 0.65 @ hdc7
root (hd1,6)
chainloader +1

title Morhpix KDE 0.4 @ hdc8
root (hd1,7)
chainloader +1

title Feather 0.6 @ hdc9
root (hd1,8)
chainloader +1

title Buffalo 1.7.3.9 @ hdc10
root (hd1,9)
chainloader  +1

title CentOS 4.1  @ hdc11
root (hd1,10)
chainloader +1

title Vector 4.3 @ hdc12
root (hd1,11)
chainloader +1

title Tao Linux 4.0 @ hdc13
root (hd1,12)
chainloader +1

title Frugaalware 0.1 @ hdc14
root (hd1,13)
chainloader +1

title Agnula Demudi 1.2 @ hdc15
root (hd1,14)
chainloader +1

title Damn Small Linux @ hdc16
root (hd1,15)
chainloader +1

title Monoppix 1.1.8 booted by Slackware 10.2 kernel from (hd1,34) @ hdc17
root (hd1,16)
kernel (hd1,34)/boot/vmlinuz ro root=/dev/hdc17

title Symphony A4 @ hdc18
root (hd1,17)
chainloader +1

title Pocket Linux 1.2 @ hdc19
root (hd1,18)
chainloader +1

title UltimaLinux 4.0 @ hdc20
root (hd1,19)
chainloader +1

title VLOS 1.2 @ hdc21
root (hd1,20)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.12-vidalinux_r3 ro root=/dev/ram0 init=/linuxrc real_root=/dev/hdc21 video=vesafb:1024×768-32@85 splash=silent,theme:vlos-1.2 quiet CONSOLE=/dev/tty1
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.12-vidalinux_r3.img

title Tiny Sofa (Ceara) @ hdc22
root (hd1,21)
chainloader +1

title 64 Studio 0.6 @ hdc23
root (hd1,22)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.13-1-multimedia-amd64-generic root=/dev/hdc23 ro vga=791 splash=silent
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.13-1-multimedia-amd64-generic

title Empty @ hdc24
root (hd1,23)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ hdc25
root (hd1,24)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ hdc26
root (hd1,25)
chainloader +1

# here is the approximate boundary of the 137Gb barrier of hdc

title Empty @ hdc27
root (hd1,26)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ hdc28
root (hd1,27)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ hdc29
root (hd1,28)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ hdc30
root (hd1,29)
chainloader +1

title rPath 0.99.2 @ hdc31
root (hd1,30)
chainloader +1

title STX 1.0 rc2 @ hdc32
root (hd1,31)
chainloader +1

title Fedora Core 5 @ hdc33
root (hd1,32)
chainloader +1

title StartCom 4.0.4 Raam @ hdc34
root (hd1,33)
chainloader +1

title Slackware 10.2 @ hdc35
root (hd1,34)
chainloader +1

title Foresight Foresight 0.9 @ hdc36
root (hd1,35)
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.12.5-fdl.2.x86.i686.cmov ro root=/dev/hdc36 splash=silent vga=791 quiet
initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.12.5-fdl.2.x86.i686.cmov.img

title Xandros 3.0 @ hdc37
root (hd1,36)
chainloader +1

title Ubuntu 5.10 Breezy Badger @ hdc38
root (hd1,37)
chainloader +1

title Kate 2.2 (booted by Suse 10 Kernel in hdc43) @ hdc39
root (hd1,38)
kernel (hd0,42)/boot/vmlinuz ro root=/dev/hdc39
initrd (hd0,42)/boot/initrd

# Partitions hdc40 to hdc54 are partitions each 200Mb for Grub working as submenus.

title Grub menu for MS systems only (Dos & Windows) @ hdc40
root (hd1,26)
chainloader +1

title Grub menu for recent additions @ hdc41
root (hd1,40)
chainloader +1

title Grub menu for only small distros @ hdc42
root (hd1,41)
chainloader +1

title Grub menu for only large distros @ hdc43
root (hd1,42)
chainloader +1

title Grub reserved menu (Empty) @ hdc44
root (hd1,43)
chainloader +1

title Grub menu for IDE disk hda only @ hdc45
root (hd1,44)
chainloader +1

title Grub menu for IDE disk hdc only @ hdc46
root (hd1,45)
chainloader +1

title Grub menu for Sata disk sda only @ hdc47
root (hd1,46)
chainloader +1

title Grub menu for Sata disk sdb only @ hdc48
root (hd1,47)
chainloader +1

title Complete menu for all 100+ systems @ hdc49
root (hd1,48)
chainloader +1

title Master Menu to boot submenus @ hdc50
root (hd1,49)
chainloader +1

title Grub reserved menu (Empty) @ hdc51
root (hd1,50)
chainloader +1

title Grub reserved menu (Empty) @ hdc52
root (hd1,51)
chainloader +1

title Grub reserved menu (Empty) @ hdc53
root (hd1,52)
chainloader +1

title Grub reserved menu (Empty) @ hdc54
root (hd1,53)
chainloader +1

# Third disk sda is a Sata with 15 partitions, 9 are bootable

title XP pro @ sdb1
hide (hd0,0)
hide (hd1,0)
hide (hd1,1)
unhide (hd2,0)
map (hd2) (hd0)
map (hd0) (hd2)
root (hd2,0)
makeactive
chainloader +1

title Empty @ sda2
root (hd2,1)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ sda3
root (hd2,2)
chainloader +1

# Extended partition here is the sdb4

title Empty @ sda5
root (hd2,4)
chainloader +1

title Ututu x2 2005.1 @ sda6
root (hd2,5)
chainloader +1

title Helix 1.7 @ sda7
root (hd2,6)
chainloader +1

title MagicLinux 2.0 rc2 @ sda8
root (hd2,7)
chainloader +1

title Zenwalk 1.2 @ sda9
root (hd2,8)
chainloader +1

title MedianLinux 4 rc5 @ sda10
root (hd2,9)
chainloader +1

title NetBSD i386 3.0 rc6 @ sda11
root (hd2,10)
chainloader +1

title Arabian 0.6 rc1 @ sda12
root (hd2,11)
chainloader +1

title Mepis 3.3.2 @ sda13
root (hd2,12)
chainloader +1

# Persinal data partion @ sda14 

title Empty @ sda15
root (hd2,14)
chainloader +1

# Fourth disk sdb is a Sata with 15 partitions, 8 are bootable

title Win2k @ sdb1
hide (hd0,0)   # hiding DOS 6.22 partition in hda1
hide (hd1,0)   # hiding DOS 7.10 partition in hdc1
hide (hd1,1)   # hiding Win98    partition in hdc2
hide (hd2,0)   # hiding Win XP   partition in sda1
unhide (hd3,0) # unhide Win2k partition for execution
root (hd3,0)
makeactive
map (hd3) (hd0)
map (hd0) (hd3)
chainloader +1

title FreeDOS @ sdb2
hide (hd0,0)   # hiding DOS 6.22 partition in hda1
hide (hd1,0)   # hiding DOS 7.10 partition in hdc1
hide (hd1,1)   # hiding Win98    partition in hdc2
hide (hd2,0)   # hiding Win XP   partition in sda1
hide (hd3,0)   # hiding Win2k    partition in sdb1
unhide (hd3,1)
root (hd3,1)
makeactive
map (hd3) (hd0)
map (hd0) (hd3)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ sdb3
root (hd3,4)
chainloader +1

# Partition sdb4 is an extended partition

title NetBSD 3.0 AMD64 @ sdb5
root (hd3,4)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ sdb6
root (hd3,5)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ sdb7
root (hd3,6)
chainloader +1

title Frugalware 0.4 @ sdb8
root (hd3,7)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ sdb9
root (hd3,8)
chainloader +1

title Quantian 0.7.9.1 @ sdb10
root (hd3,9)
chainloader +1

title Suse 10.1 x86 64 @ sdb11
root (hd3,10)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ sdb12
root (hd3,11)
chainloader +1

title Knoppix 4.0.2 @ sdb13
root (hd3,12)
chainloader +1

title Mandriva Release 2006 @ sdb14
root (hd3,13)
chainloader +1

title Empty @ sdb15
root (hd3,14)
chainloader +1

Toda esta sintaxis corresponde a un solo menú de Grub que incluye más de cien sistemas operativos, concretamente:

3 sistemas Dos
3 Windows
2 Solaris
5 BSDs
97 Linux

Con este megagrup completamos el tema de las notaciones de Grub pero continuaremos con otros aspectos sobre su funcionamiento ya que este tema es lo suficiente extenso como para abordarlo en una sola sección.


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edumix

Ingeniero Informático de Profesión y Desarrollador Web de vocación. Amante de las Nuevas Tecnologías e Internet. "Linux Adicto" y en contacto permanente con "La Nube".

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